Person: Goyal, Sangeeta
Global Practice on Education, The World Bank
Author Name Variants
Fields of Specialization
Early childhood education, Education, Tertiary education
Global Practice on Education, The World Bank
Externally Hosted Work
Last updated: January 31, 2023
Sangeeta Goyal has a Ph.D. in Economics from Columbia University. Her areas of interest include human capital and development economics.
Publication Search Results
Now showing 1 - 10 of 11
PublicationCommunity Participation in Public Schools : The Impact of Information Campaigns in Three Indian States(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2008-11) Pandey, Priyanka; Goyal, Sangeeta; Sundararaman, VenkateshThis study evaluates the impact of a community-based information campaign on school performance from a cluster randomized control trial. The campaign consisted of eight to nine public meetings in each of 340 treatment villages across three Indian states to disseminate information to the community about its state mandated roles and responsibilities in school management. The findings from the first follow-up 2-4 months after the campaign show that providing information through a structured campaign to communities had a positive impact in all three states. In two states there was a significant and positive impact on reading (14-27 percent) in one of the three grades tested; in the third state there was a significant impact on writing in one grade (15 percent) and on mathematics in the other grade tested (27 percent). The intervention is associated with improvement in teacher effort in two states. Some improvements occurred in the delivery of certain benefits entitled to students (stipend, uniform, and mid day meal) and in process variables such as community participation in each of the three states. Follow-up research needs to examine whether there is a systematic increase in learning when the impact is measured over a longer time period and whether a campaign sustained over a longer time is able to generate greater impact on school outcomes. PublicationGetting the Right Teachers into the Right Schools: Managing India's Teacher Workforce(Washington, DC: World Bank, 2018) Ramachandran, Vimala; Béteille, Tara; Linden, Toby; Dey, Sangeeta; Goyal, Sangeeta; Goel Chatterjee, PrernaIndia's landmark Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act (2009) guarantees education to all children aged 6-14 years. The Act mandates specific student-teacher ratios and emphasizes teacher quality. Writing this into legislation took seven years, but the seven years since has proven that ensuring effective teachers are recruited and placed in all schools in a time-bound manner is considerably more challenging. This report takes a detailed look at the complexity of the teacher management landscape in elementary and secondary schools in nine Indian states. On a daily basis, the administrative machinery of these states has to manage between 19,000 to nearly a million teachers in different types of schools and employment contracts, and cope with recruiting thousands more and distributing them equitably across schools. This report examines the following issues: official requirements for becoming a schoolteacher in India; policies and processes for teacher recruitment, deployment and transfers; salaries and benefits of teachers; professional growth of teachers; and grievance redress mechanisms for teachers. For the first time in India, this report compares and contrasts stated policy with actual practice in teacher management in the country, using a combination of primary and secondary data. In so doing, the report reveals the hidden challenges and the nature of problems faced by administrators in attempting to build an effective teacher workforce which serves the needs of all of India's 200 million school children. The report examines states with varying characteristics, thus generating knowledge and evidence likely to be of interest to policy makers and practitioners in a wide range of contexts. PublicationContract Teachers(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2009-11) Goyal, SangeetaIn this paper authors use non-experimental data from government schools in Uttar Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh, two of the largest Indian states, to present average school outcomes by contract status of teachers. The authors find that after controlling for teacher characteristics and school fixed effects, contract teachers are associated with higher effort than civil service teachers with permanent tenures. Higher teacher effort is associated with better student performance after controlling for other school inputs and student characteristics. Given that salaries earned by contract teachers are one fourth or less of civil service teachers, contract teachers may be a more cost-effective resource. However, contracts 'as they are' appear weak. Not only do contract teachers have fairly low average effort in absolute terms, but those who have been on the job for at least one full tenure have lower effort than others who are in the first contract period. PublicationInside the House of Learning : The Relative Performance of Public and Private Schools in Orissa(2009) Goyal, SangeetaEmpirical evidence shows that the quality of learning in public schools is very low in India. There is also a robust belief that private schools offer better-quality learning at a lower cost and are a cost-effective alternative to public schools. Most of the evidence on which this latter claim is based does not correct for selection bias--students who go to private schools may differ systematically from students who go to public schools on observable and unobservable characteristics. In this context, it is entirely plausible that public schools may be no worse or even better than private schools although the latter may still be more cost-effective. In this paper, we use a strategy suggested by Altonji, Elder, and Taber to estimate selection bias in the positive private school effect on test scores. We use test scores data on Grade Four students attending public and private schools in the eastern state of Orissa in India. Our findings suggest that there is a true private school effect as only 12-13% of the adjusted test score difference is due to selection on unobserved factors. PublicationDoes Information Improve School Accountability? Results of a Large Randomized Trial(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2011-12) Pandey, Priyanka; Goyal, Sangeeta; Sundararaman, VenkateshThis study evaluates a community-based randomized controlled trial (RCT) to determine the impact of an information campaign on learning and other school outcomes. The study was conducted in three Indian states, Uttar Pradesh (UP), Madhya Pradesh (MP), and Karnataka. UP and MP are two large north and central Indian states, respectively, and lag behind in economic and social outcomes, while Karnataka in southern India is economically and socially more developed. Even though all three states have devolved oversight roles to the community with respect to government schools, they differ in the extent to which such devolution has taken place. The information campaign disseminated state specific information to the community on its oversight roles in schools and education services that parents are entitled to. Information was disseminated in 11-14 public meetings in each treatment village over a period of two and a half years. PublicationPublic Participation, Teacher Accountability, and School Outcomes : Findings from Baseline Surveys in Three Indian States(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2008-11) Pandey, Priyanka; Goyal, Sangeeta; Sundararaman, VenkateshThis paper presents findings from baseline surveys on student learning achievement, teacher effort and community participation in three Indian states, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh. Results indicate low teacher attendance and poor student learning. Parents and school committees are neither aware of their oversight roles nor participating in school management. However, there is substantial heterogeneity in outcomes across states. Karnataka has better student and teacher outcomes as well as higher levels of community awareness and participation than the other two states. The authors find substantial variation in teacher effort within schools, but most observable teacher characteristics are not associated with teacher effort. One reason for low teacher effort may be lack of accountability. Regression analysis suggests low rates of teacher attendance are only part of the problem of low student achievement. The gains in test scores associated with higher rates of attendance and engagement in teaching are small in the states of Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh, suggesting teachers themselves may not be effective. Ineffective teaching may result from lack of accountability as well as poor professional development of teachers. Further research is needed to examine not only issues of accountability but also professional development of teachers. PublicationDoes Culture Matter or Firm? Demand for Female Labor in Three Indian Cities(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2019-02) Mehta, Soumya Kapoor; Das, Maitreyi Bordia; Zumbyte, Ieva; Sasmal, Sanjeev; Goyal, SangeetaIn discussing the inordinately low employment of Indian women in urban areas, several studies have argued that culture and attitudes have created a labor market that is inherently discriminatory. The unsaid corollary is that culture is slow and hard to change and so, women will stay out of the labor market until social change occurs. The empirical evidence on the role of culture is slim at best. This paper fills the void in the policy literature, as it assesses the relative role of culture, as signified by attitudes of employers, and firm characteristics in hiring women. The paper is based on a unique survey of 618 firms in three of the largest cities in the state of Madhya Pradesh (India)—Bhopal, Indore, and Gwalior. Using detailed descriptive, bivariate and multivariate analysis at the firm level, the hiring process, and attitudes toward male and female workers, the paper addresses the issue of culture and firm characteristics, while noting that the two are not necessarily in binary opposition. The results reinforce the conventional wisdom in some ways and are surprising in others. The most salient result is that employer attitudes matter much less for the chance that women will be hired, than do firm and location characteristics. This has significant policy implications, the most important of which is that female employment in urban India is amenable to policy intervention, and that it is not necessary to wait for culture to change. PublicationContract Teachers in India(Taylor and Francis, 2011-06-24) Goyal, SangeetaIn this paper, we use non‐experimental data from government schools in Uttar Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh, two of the largest Indian states, to present average school outcomes by contract status of teachers. We find that contract teachers are associated with higher effort than civil service teachers with permanent tenures, before as well as after controlling for school fixed effects. And higher teacher effort is associated with better student performance after controlling for other school inputs and student characteristics. Given that salaries earned by contract teachers are one‐fourth or less of civil service teachers, contract teachers may be a more cost‐effective resource. However, contracts ‘as they are’ appear weak. Not only do contract teachers have fairly low average effort in absolute terms, but those who have been on the job for at least one full tenure have lower effort than others who are in the first contract period. PublicationSri Lanka Education Sector Assessment: Achievements, Challenges, and Policy Options(Washington, DC: World Bank, 2017-06-08) Dundar, Halil; Millot, Benoit; Riboud, Michelle; Shojo, Mari; Aturupane, Harsha; Goyal, Sangeeta; Raju, Dhushyanth; Aturupane, HarshaA country’s education system plays a pivotal role in promoting economic growth and shared prosperity. Sri Lanka has enjoyed high school-attainment and enrollment rates for several decades. However, it still faces major challenges in the education sector, and these challenges undermine the country’s inclusivegrowth goal and its ambition to become a competitive upper-middle-income country. The authors of Sri Lanka Education Sector Assessment: Achievements, Challenges, and Policy Options offer a thorough review of Sri Lanka’s education sector—from early childhood education through higher education. With this book, they attempt to answer three questions: • How is Sri Lanka’s education system performing, especially with respect to participation rates, learning outcomes, and labor market outcomes? • How can the country address the challenges at each stage of the education process, taking into account both country and international experience and also best practices? • Which policy actions should Sri Lanka make a priority for the short and medium term? The authors identify the most critical constraints on performance and present strategic priorities and policy options to address them. To attain inclusive growth and become globally competitive, Sri Lanka needs to embark on integrated reforms across all levels of education. These reforms must address both short-term skill shortages and long-term productivity. As Sri Lanka moves up the development ladder, the priorities of primary, secondary, and postsecondary education must be aligned to meet the increasingly complex education and skill requirements. PublicationHow Do Government and Private Schools Differ? Findings from Two Large Indian States(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2009-12) Goyal, SangeetaThis paper uses survey data from representative samples of government and private schools in two states of India, Uttar Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh, to explore systematic differences between the two school types. The authors find that private school students have higher test scores than government school students. However, in both private and government schools the overall quality is low and learning gains from one grade to the next are small. There is large variation in the quality of both school types; and observed school and teacher characteristics are weakly correlated with learning outcomes. There is considerable sorting among students, and those from higher socio-economic strata select into private schools. Private schools have lower pupil-teacher ratios and seven to eight times' lower teacher salaries but do not differ systematically in infrastructure and teacher effort from government schools. Most of the variation in teacher effort is within schools and is weakly correlated with observed teacher characteristics such as education, training, and experience. After controlling for observed student and school characteristics, the private school advantage over government schools in test scores varies by state, school type and grade. Private unrecognized schools do better than private recognized schools. Given the large salary differential, private schools would clearly be more cost effective even in the case of no absolute difference in test scores.