de Walque, Damien

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Education, Macroeconomic and Structural Policies, Health
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Last updated September 26, 2023
Damien de Walque received his Economics from the University of Chicago in 2003. His research interests include health and education and the interactions between them. His current work is focused on evaluating the impact of financial incentives on health and education outcomes. He is currently evaluating the education and health outcomes of conditional cash transfers linked to school attendance and health center visits in Burkina Faso. He is also working on evaluating the impact of HIV/AIDS interventions and policies in several African countries. He is leading two evaluations of the impact of short-term financial incentives on the prevention of HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs): individuals who test negatively for a set of STIs receive regular cash payment in Tanzania, while in Lesotho they receive lottery tickets. On the supply side of health services, he is managing a large portfolio of impact evaluations of results-based financing in the health sector. He has also edited a book on risky behaviors for health (smoking, drugs, alcohol, obesity, risky sex) in the developing world.
Citations 578 Scopus

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Now showing 1 - 3 of 3
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    Does Education Affect HIV Status? Evidence from five African Countries
    (World Bank, 2009-06-30) de Walque, Damien
    Data from the first five Demographic and Health Surveys to include HIV testing for a representative sample of the adult population are used to analyze the socioeconomic correlates of HIV infection and associated sexual behavior. Emerging from a wealth of country relevant results, some important findings can be generalized. First, successive marriages are a significant risk factor. Second, contrary to prima facie evidence, education is not positively associated with HIV status. However, schooling is one of the most consistent predictors of behavior and knowledge: education level predicts protective behaviors such as condom use, use of counseling and testing, discussion of AIDS between spouses, and knowledge about HIV/AIDS, but it also predicts a higher level of infidelity and a lower level of abstinence.
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    Do Unsafe Tetanus Toxoid Injections Play a Significant Role in the Transmission of HIV/AIDS? Evidence from Seven African Countries
    ( 2008) de Walque, D.
    OBJECTIVES: Although sexual transmission is generally considered to be the main factor driving the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Africa, recent studies have claimed that iatrogenic transmission should be considered as an important source of HIV infection. In particular, receipt of tetanus toxoid injections during pregnancy has been reported to be associated with HIV infection in Kenya. The objective of this paper is to assess the robustness of this association among women in nationally representative HIV surveys in seven African countries. METHODS: The association between prophylactic tetanus toxoid injections during pregnancy and HIV infection was analysed, using individual-level data from women who gave birth in the past five years. These data are from the nationally representative Demographic and Health Surveys, which included HIV testing in seven African countries: Burkina Faso 2003 (N = 2424), Cameroon 2004 (N = 2600), Ethiopia 2005 (N = 2886), Ghana 2003 (N = 2560), Kenya 2003 (N = 1617), Lesotho 2004 (N = 1278) and Senegal 2005 (N = 2126). RESULTS: Once the odds ratios (OR) were adjusted for five-year age groups and for ethnic, urban and regional indicators, the association between prophylactic tetanus toxoid injections during pregnancy and HIV infection was never statistically significant in any of the seven countries. Only in Cameroon was there an association between previous tetanus toxoid injection and HIV positivity but it became weaker (OR 1.53, 95% CI 0.91 to 2.57) once urban location and ethnic group were adjusted for. CONCLUSIONS: Although the risk of HIV infection through unsafe injections and healthcare should not be ignored and should be reduced, it does not seem that there is, at present and in the seven countries studied, strong evidence supporting the claim that unsafe tetanus toxoid injections are a major factor driving the HIV epidemic.
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    Parental Education and Children's Schooling Outcomes: Evidence from Recomposed Families in Rwanda
    ( 2009) de Walque, Damien
    In this article, I investigate how educational outcomes of orphans are affected by the education of the family members in their new family. The study uses household survey data from Rwanda that contain a large proportion of children living in households without their biological parents. The data also allow controlling for the educational attainment of the absent biological parents and the type of relationship that links the children to their adoptive families. The results of the analysis suggest that the education of the adoptive parents has a positive impact on the children's schooling. Interestingly, mothers' education matters more for girls, while fathers' education is more important for boys. The results also indicate that placing orphans with their relatives has a positive impact on their schooling. This finding has obvious policy implications for African countries with a large proportion of orphans due to the HIV/AIDS epidemic or to conflicts.