Kose, M. Ayhan
Prospects Group, The World Bank
Author Name Variants
Fields of Specialization
International macroeconomics, International finance
Prospects Group, The World Bank
Externally Hosted Work
Last updated January 31, 2023
M. Ayhan Kose is Director of the World Bank Group’s Prospects Group. He previously worked in the Research and Western Hemisphere Departments of the International Monetary Fund. He is a Nonresident Senior Fellow at the Brookings Institution, a Research Fellow at the Center for Economic Policy Research, a Dean’s Fellow at University of Virginia’s Darden School of Business, and a Research Associate at the Center for Applied Macroeconomic Analysis.
Publication Search Results
Now showing 1 - 5 of 5
Publication(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2015-12) Didier, Tatiana ; Kose, M. Ayhan ; Ohnsorge, Franziska ; Ye, Lei SandyA synchronous growth slowdown has been underway in emerging markets (EM) since 2010. Growth in these countries is now markedly slower than, not just the pre‐crisis average, but also the long‐term average. As a group, EM growth eased from 7.6 percent in 2010 to 4.5 percent in 2014, and is projected to slow further to below 4 percent in 2015. This moderation has affected all regions (except South Asia) and is the most severe in Latin America and the Caribbean. The deceleration is highly synchronous across countries, especially among large EM. By 2015, China, Russia, and South Africa had all experienced three consecutive years of slower growth. The EM‐AE growth differential has narrowed to two percentage points in 2015, well below the 2003‐08 average of 4.8 percentage points and near the long‐term average differential of 1990‐2008. The recent slowdown in EM has been a source of a lively debate, as evident from the quotations at the beginning of this note. Some economists paint a bleak picture for the future of EM and argue that the impressive growth performance of EM prior to the crisis was driven by temporary commodity booms and rapid debt accumulation, and will not be sustained. Others emphasize that a wide range of cyclical and structural factors are driving the slowdown: weakening macroeconomic fundamentals after the crisis; prospective tightening in financial conditions; resurfacing of deep‐rooted governance problems in EM; and difficulty adjusting to disruptive technological changes. Still others highlight differences across EM and claim that some of them are in a better position to weather the slowdown and will likely register strong growth in the future. This policy research note seeks to help move the debate forward by examining the main features, drivers, and implications of the recent EM slowdown and provides a comprehensive analysis of available policy options to counteract it.
Publication(Washington, DC: World Bank, 2019) Ha, Jongrim ; Kose, M. Ayhan ; Ohnsorge, Franziska ; Ha, Jongrim ; Kose, M. Ayhan ; Ohnsorge, Franziska ; Ivanova, Anna ; Laborde, David ; Lakatos, Csilla ; Martin, Will ; Matsuoka, Hideaki ; Montiel, Peter J. ; Panizza, Ugo ; Pedroni, Peter ; Stocker, Marc ; Unsal, Filiz D. ; Vorisek, Dana ; Yilmazkuday, HakanEmerging market and developing economies, like advanced economies, have experienced a remarkable decline in inflation over the past half-century. Yet, research into this development has focused almost exclusively on advanced economies. This book fills that gap, providing the first comprehensive and systematic analysis of inflation in emerging market and developing economies. It examines how inflation has evolved and become synchronized among economies; what drives inflation globally and domestically; where inflation expectations have become better-anchored; and how exchange rate fluctuations can pass through to inflation. To reach its conclusions, the book employs cutting edge empirical approaches. It also offers a rich data set of multiple measures of inflation for a virtually global sample of countries over a half-century to spur further research into this important topic.
Publication(Taylor and Francis, 2019) Islamaj, Ergys ; Kose, M. Ayhan ; Ohnsorge, Franziska ; Ye, Lei SandyThis article investigates the drivers of investment growth in emerging market and developing economies with a focus on the most recent slowdown over the 2010–2015 period. Using panel regression techniques, we find that the recent investment slowdown in emerging market and developing economies is associated with a range of obstacles: weak economic activity, negative terms-of-trade shocks, declining foreign direct investment inflows, elevated private debt burdens, and heightened political risk. This stands in contrast with advanced economies, where weak economic activity is the most important factor. We briefly discuss policy implications of our findings.
Publication(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2017-06) Huidrom, Raju ; Kose, M. Ayhan ; Ohnsorge, Franziska L.The seven largest emerging market economies -- China, India, Brazil, Russia, Mexico, Indonesia, and Turkey -- constituted more than one-quarter of global output and more than half of global output growth during 2010-15. These emerging markets, called EM7, are also closely integrated with other countries, especially with other emerging and frontier markets. Given their size and integration, growth in EM7 could have significant cross-border spillovers. The authors provide empirical estimates of these spillovers using a Bayesian vector autoregression model. They report three main results. First, spillovers from EM7 are sizeable: a 1 percentage point increase in EM7 growth is associated with a 0.9 percentage point increase in growth in other emerging and frontier markets and a 0.6 percentage point increase in world growth at the end of three years. Second, sizeable as they are, spillovers from EM7 are still smaller than those from G7 countries (Group of Seven of advanced economies). Specifically, growth in other emerging and frontier markets, and the global economy would increase by one-half to three times more due to a similarly sized increase in G7 growth. Third, among the EM7, spillovers from China are the largest and permeate globally.
Publication(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2017-03) Kose, M. Ayhan ; Ohnsorge, Franziska ; Ye, Lei Sandy ; Islamaj, ErgysInvestment growth in emerging market and developing economies has slowed sharply since 2010. This paper presents a comprehensive analysis of the causes and implications of this slowdown and presents a menu of policy responses to improve investment growth. It reports four main results. First, the slowdown has been broad-based and most pronounced in the largest emerging markets and in commodity exporters. Second, it reflects a range of obstacles: weak activity, negative terms-of-trade shocks, declining foreign direct investment inflows, elevated private debt burdens, heightened political risk, and adverse spillovers from major economies. Third, by slowing capital accumulation and technological progress embedded in investment, weak post-crisis investment growth has contributed to sluggish growth of potential output in recent years. Finally, although specific policy priorities depend on country circumstances, policymakers can boost investment both directly, through public investment, and indirectly, by encouraging private investment, including foreign direct investment, and by undertaking measures to improve overall growth prospects and the business climate.