Person:
Hollweg, Claire H.

Macroeconomics, Trade, and Investment Global Practice
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Author Name Variants
Fields of Specialization
International trade, Global value chains, Services, Labor markets, Development economics
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ORCID
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Macroeconomics, Trade, and Investment Global Practice
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Last updated January 31, 2023
Biography
Claire H. Hollweg is a senior economist with the Macroeconomics, Trade, and Investment Global Practice of the World Bank. Before studying economics, she worked as a journalist. She has worked with the government of South Australia and the Pacific Economic Cooperation Council in Singapore. Her research interests include development economics, with a focus on the nexus between trade, labor markets, servicification of manufacturing, and upgrading in global value chains. She holds a PhD and an MA in economics from the University of Adelaide.

Publication Search Results

Now showing 1 - 4 of 4
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    The Labor Content of Exports in South Africa and Botswana: A Preliminary Exploration
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2015-01) Calì, Massimiliano ; Hollweg, Claire
    The LACEX dataset has been recently assembled to compute the (direct and indirect) value of the compensation of employees linked to exports for each sector/country/year. The data has been computed on the basis of a panel of global input-output data spanning intermittent years from 1995 to 2007 from the Global Trade Analysis Project (GTAP). This represents a form of social accounting data - a variation on the social accounting matrix (SAM) where incomes are shown in the rows of the SAM while expenditures are shown in the columns. The structure of the data provides a comprehensive and consistent record of national income accounting relationships between different sectors and regions, including intermediate and final demand linkages. This structure of the dataset allows one to obtain the value added content of final output and exports, including its compensation of employees’ component. That includes both the direct and indirect compensation, based on the backward linkages of each sector with the rest of the economy. In order to obtain these labor value added measures, two intermediate multiplier matrixes need to be calculated. The first is the Leontief inverse matrix, which measures the inputs contained in a unit of final output. This matrix contains both direct and indirect inputs. Next, one needs to calculate a matrix which has the compensation of employees’ shares of total output. Using these two matrixes as multipliers one can obtain the compensation of employees’ shares of exports and final outputs. These shares are also split between skilled and unskilled workers.
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    From Evidence to Policy Supporting Nepal’s Trade Integration Strategy: Diversifying Nepal’s Economy through a Dynamic Services Sector
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2016-06) Hollweg, Claire H.
    This note looks at the services sector and its dual role for Nepal: as a direct source of exports, and as a provider of key inputs for other sectors of the economy. It identifies sources of potential for services exports, and key obstacles for improved efficiency in the sector. It also provides some policy recommendations to alleviate the observed obstacles, and presents examples of good practices from across the world in terms of services trade performance and reforms. Three of the 12 sectors identified in Nepal’s National Trade Integration Strategy 2015 (NTIS 2015) are services-related. This note assesses Nepal’s trade potential in services, and identifies actionable policy measures that are needed for Nepal to achieve this potential. The framework used to assess Nepal’s trade potential in services starts from the idea that services play a dual role for building export competitiveness in the Nepalese economy. The remainder of this note proceeds as follows. Section I analyzes the direct services export performance of Nepal’s exports relative to comparator countries, when measuring exports in gross or value added terms. It takes a detailed look at performance of Nepal’s priority export potential services sectors. Section II analyzes the indirect services export performance, when services are used as inputs for other sectors’ exports. It takes a perspective of services for cross-cutting export competitiveness. This analysis is undertaken in value-added terms. Section III details the policy implications that arise from this analysis, taking both a cross-cutting and sector-specific point of view.
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    Cambodia’s Future Jobs: Linking to the Economy of Tomorrow
    (World Bank, Phnom Penh, 2019) Cunningham, Wendy ; Hollweg, Claire H.
    Jobs are an important part of Cambodia’s story of development success. There are eight million jobs in Cambodia, and eighty percent of Cambodian adults above the age of fifteen are working in contrast to 62.5 percent of adults in East Asia Pacific region. Cambodia will need to enact substantive reforms to secure more, better, and more inclusive jobs in the long term. Fundamentally, Cambodia needs to upgrade and integrate the two sides of its economy namely the exports sector, which includes foreign- owned (FDI) firms, and the domestic sector made up of household enterprises (HHEs) and small and medium enterprises (SMEs). Meanwhile, Cambodian workers need to increase their skills and ability to pursue the job opportunities that will materialize as these sectors increase their competitiveness.
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    The Labor Impact of Lao Export Growth
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2016-02) Ruppert Bulmer, Elizabeth ; Hollweg, Claire H.
    As countries become increasingly integrated into the global economy, increased trade links with other countries translate into increased access to better or cheaper imports and increased demand for exports. Both can have an impact on consumers, producers and workers through household consumption, household production, and labor incentives. The channels through which increased trade integration can affect labor include: (i) the consumption channel, typically leading to an increase in purchasing power and therefore higher real wages, and (ii) the employment effect due to increased labor demand. The extent of these gains to trade will depend on the incidence of trade policies or trade shocks; in other words, the impact will depend on which products become less expensive, which sectors increase demand for skilled or unskilled labor, and which workers can access these new jobs. This report utilizes a range of methodologies and datasets that implicitly link trade and jobs; by using these complementary analytical approaches, we generate multiple perspectives on Lao PDR’s recent labor market outcomes, and their implications for Lao PDR’s current and future trade competitiveness.