Govindaraj, Ramesh

Global Practice on Health, Nutrition and Population, The World Bank
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Health policy and economics, Public health, Pharmaceuticals, Ophthalmology, Medicine
Global Practice on Health, Nutrition and Population, The World Bank
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Last updated January 31, 2023
Ramesh Govindaraj is a Lead Specialist in the Health, Nutrition and Population Global Practice of the World Bank. He has almost 30 years of development experience, working in diverse settings, including as a practicing physician in India, in an international NGO based in California, in the research-based pharmaceutical industry in New Jersey, and as a senior researcher at Harvard University. Ramesh has published widely in peer reviewed pharmaceuticals, health and development journals and edited volumes, and holds adjunct appointments at leading universities in the United States. Ramesh holds an MD in Ophthalmology from the University of Delhi and an M.S. in Health Policy and Management and a D.Sc. in International Health Economics and Policy from Harvard University.
Citations 24 Scopus

Publication Search Results

Now showing 1 - 2 of 2
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    Applying Market Mechanisms to Central Medical Stores : Experiences from Burkina Faso, Cameroon, and Senegal
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2010-07) Govindaraj, Ramesh ; Herbst, Christopher H.
    This study summarizes the findings of three assessments of Central Medical Store (CMS) reform and performance in Francophone Africa. The study aims to document and characterize the organizational reform of the CMSs and the impact of the reform on CMS management and performance in Cameroon, Burkina and Senegal. It seeks further to assess the extent to which increased autonomy brought about by such 'marketizing' reforms has had an impact on intermediate CMS results, service quality, product quality, and access to medicines. The findings indicate that organizational reform did contribute towards improving operational performance which, in turn, influenced service quality, product quality, and access to CMS-supplied medicine in these countries. However, improvements in these areas were premised not simply on increased autonomy, but on a whole variety of drivers, both internal and external to a CMS. These include a strong regulatory framework, the conventions, laws, regulations, and administrative acts that increase the flexibility of some decision making rights, whilst constraining others, with an emphasis on social obligations, accountability, and transparency, as well as external factors, such as technical assistance, government subsidies, and relevant external policies, institutions and regulations. The paper ends by proposing a framework that could be used both for the design as well as for the analysis of marketizing reforms in CMSs and other public sector commodity supply entities in developing countries. The framework is sufficiently general that, with some modifications, it could also be applied usefully to the design and analysis of such reform in other public sector institutions delivering social services.
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    Drug Donations in Post-Emergency Situations
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2002-06) Autier, Philippe ; Govindaraj, Ramesh ; Gray, Robin ; Lakshminarayanan, Rama ; Nassery, Homira G. ; Schmets, Gerard
    The objectives of this project were to conduct situation analyses on drug donations in East Timor (post-conflict country), El Salvador and Gujarat State in India (both affected by earthquakes), and Mozambique (floods), applying criteria derived from the Interagency Guidelines for Drug Donations; to determine how and whether the implementation of the Guidelines has affected the processes and outcomes of drug donations; and to build evidence to facilitate wider acceptance of the Guidelines. The study teams undertook to identify the organizations responsible for inappropriate donations, a step not often taken in earlier investigations. This information can now be used to facilitate educational initiatives aimed at preventing similar problems in the future. Awareness of the Guidelines was high and appropriate drug donations were made in El Salvador, Gujarat State in India and East Timor. In Mozambique, it was found that even with strong recipient awareness of the Guidelines and country ownership of the drug donation process, dumping and inappropriate donations occurred. International donors did not follow requests made by the Mozambique Government, and disruption of administrative systems by the floods affected capacity to ensure proper management of drug supplies. In the four countries, drug needs in the first few days following the emergency were often met through buffer stocks. A common feature noted in Gujarat, East Timor and El Salvador was that, in most instances, adequate drug supplies were provided during the acute phase of the disaster through the use of local buffer stocks, as well as by major donor agencies with expertise in providing immediate disaster aid of good quality. In the case of Gujarat, the presence of a large domestic pharmaceutical production capacity in India significantly aided the swift response following the occurrence of the earthquake. In Mozambique, warehouses that contained buffer stocks were flooded. The effectiveness of logistics software systems was closely dependent on local capacity and sustainability of the systems. The decision to use them for emergencies needs to be re-examined since the effectiveness of these tools is disputed. In India and Mozambique, elaborate manual record-keeping systems that the local staff were familiar with and experienced in maintaining, served as a better source of information than computer based systems that were not updated, lacked functioning equipment and required staff knowledgeable in the use of the program. In all four countries, no evidence was found to suggest that improvements are needed to the Guidelines. However, there is a continuing need for improved dissemination, mainly among specific donor groups such as bilateral organizations, diasporas and smaller organizations. Such targeting of information on drug donation practices would improve future outcomes.