Growth and Competitiveness Group, World Bank Institute
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Fields of Specialization
macroeconomics; regional economics; entrepreneurship; small business
Growth and Competitiveness Group, World Bank Institute
Externally Hosted Work
Last updated January 31, 2023
Breda Griffith has worked as a consultant with WBI since 2005 in the areas of growth, poverty, gender, development, and labor markets. She has publications in refereed journals on development and language maintenance, entrepreneurship, and small business. Breda has also co-authored books on economic growth, poverty, gender and macroeconomic policy, new directions in development, labor markets in developing countries, and geography of growth. Previously she was a lecturer in DCU Business School, Dublin, Ireland and a Researcher at Queensland Treasury, Brisbane, Australia.
Publication Search Results
Now showing 1 - 6 of 6
Clusters of Competitiveness(Washington, DC: World Bank, 2013) Nallari, Raj ; Griffith, BredaCompetitiveness is a broad subject with applications at the level of the firm, industry, region, nation, and global economy. Each one of these aspects has a rich literature drawn on by academics and policy makers over a long period. This book seeks to present a broad overview of the main ideas underlying competitiveness and its applications, highlighting, and discussing in greater depth the topics that are of relevance currently. The book draws out the experiences of and lessons for developing economies and examines in detail the role for policy. This paper is structured as follows: chapter one addresses competition and competition policy; chapter two examines competitiveness by analyzing its many different indicators; chapter three looks further at indexes of national competitiveness that describe international competitive performance; chapter four addresses innovation, an increasingly important aspect of competitiveness; and chapter five discusses competitiveness and clusters.
A Primer on Policies for Jobs(World Bank, 2012) Nallari, Raj ; Griffith, Breda ; Wang, Yidan ; Andriamananjara, Soamiely ; Chen, Derek H. C. ; Bhattacharya, RwitwikaA primer on policies for jobs is based on materials and input provided during the labor market courses conducted during the past 10 years. Its objective is to provide government policy makers, researchers, and labor market practitioners and other specialists with a practical guide on how to strengthen labor market institutions, especially in light of the global financial crisis. This primer emphasizes six pillars of labor market institutions: global trends, job creation, labor market policies, education, entrepreneurship, and globalization. Chapter one addresses current labor market trends and job creation, particularly in tough conditions. Chapter two examines channels of job creation and ways to strengthen labor market institutions to ensure sustainable job growth, considering factors such as investment climate, job policy, industrial policy, social protection, and other labor market issues. Chapter three focuses on labor market policies in developing countries. Chapter four highlights the impact of education and skills on labor market outcome. Chapter five discusses entrepreneurship along three key dimensions: development and growth, job creation, and female entrepreneurship. Finally, chapter six addresses the relationship between jobs and globalization.
Geography of Growth : Spatial Economics and Competitiveness(World Bank, 2012-04-20) Nallari, Raj ; Griffith, Breda ; Yusuf, ShahidThis volume is organized as follows. Chapter one address two questions: how has spatial concentration evolved with growth and development, and what are the efficiency implications of too much or too little spatial concentration? This chapter summarizes the various models that analyze growth by geographic concentration and sets the foundation for concepts discussed in later chapters. Chapter two focuses on urbanization in geographies. Chapter three correlates urban presence with economic density in developed and developing countries. It initially focuses on how urban transition and growth are blurring the rural-urban divide and the unprecedented volume of people who are moving to urban areas. Chapter four discusses how different industries inhabit and impact various urban sectors. Chapter five contextualizes urban growth in the current technological landscape as innovation, particularly in information technology, has become critical to increasing productivity and consequently growth. Chapter six further analyzes urbanization in the current global context, specifically, the impact of globalization and industry clusters on urbanization. Chapter seven addresses a current fundamental global trend: why has urbanization been growing rapidly since the 1950s? Some theories suggest that it is industry that spurs urbanization and consequently growth in infrastructure; however this is not the case. Instead, the chapter concludes by looking at data across regions and cities, the municipalities are pivotal in influencing infrastructure development and growth in urban centers. Finally, chapter eight deciphers why some cities are more successful than others. Why do Karachi and Sao Paulo have the human capital that qualifies them as urban centers but not as thriving cities? By citing examples of successful cities, this chapter provides policy recommendations on how to make a city competitive in today's economy.
Understanding Growth and Poverty : Theory, Policy, and Empirics(World Bank, 2011) Nallari, Raj ; Griffith, BredaThis volume is an introduction to the theories and policies that affect economic growth and poverty. It is a compilation of lecture notes used in face-to-face and e-learning courses presented by the World Bank Institute's (WBI) Poverty Program during 2004-08. The volume is divided into three parts. Part one discusses basic concepts and measurement issues pertaining to poverty, national income, and economic growth. Part two deals with the macroeconomic policies that are critical for economic growth in the short term. It covers government enforced fiscal and exchange-rate policies and the roles of financial institutions, development assistance (or aid), debt relief, and trade policies. Part three covers the structural and sectoral policies that affect longer-term economic growth and poverty reduction. To underscore the impact of good governance and effective service delivery in growth and poverty reduction, separate chapters are devoted to institutional and technological development, education, health, labor, and land. The volume ends with a chapter that summarizes knowledge of growth theory, reviews the process of growth in 13 successful countries, and draws out implications for other developing countries. The authors hope that this chapter may be of help to policy makers in identifying the constraints to economic growth and development that may be unique to each country.
Frontiers in Development Policy : A Primer on Emerging Issues(World Bank, 2011-09-15) Nallari, Raj ; Yusuf, Shahid ; Griffith, Breda ; Bhattacharya, RwitwikaThe book has been divided into five parts. Part one focuses on clarifying the basic concepts (that is, what are the appropriate goals of economic policy?), the challenges of low- and middle-income developing countries, and suggested frameworks for analysis. Part two moves from the macroeconomic to the microeconomic; it focuses on the private sector as the engine for growth and is balanced with 'softer' issues of the need for trust, accountability, and corporate social responsibility. Part three examines the growing consensus on the need to balance the public and private sectors' roles in the structural transformation of an economy. The discussion centers on newer thinking on industrial policy and public private partnerships in infrastructure. Part four focuses on human development policies in emerging topics, such as investment in early childhood development, health and nutrition, and quality of education. The discussion recognizes the roles of the state and the private sector. Finally, part five is dedicated to issues of global shocks and risks (including climate change and financial crisis), as well as systems and institutions that need to be in place to manage such risks, and the new thinking on social protection and insurance to mitigate adverse shocks.
Gender and Macroeconomic Policy(World Bank, 2011-01-05) Nallari, Raj ; Griffith, BredaThis report aims to show how macroeconomic policies create differential opportunities for women and men. This volume comprises nine chapters covering four broad themes: gender as a category of analysis in macroeconomics; the implications of gender for macroeconomic aggregates, in particular consumption and economic growth; the role of gender in the labor market, globalization, and access to credit; and gender budgeting. Chapters one and two address the first theme. Chapter one focuses on the macroeconomic cost to growth and development that arises from rigid gender roles and associated gender asymmetries. Chapter two documents the progress made in gender mainstreaming by highlighting developments in data collection and monitoring that have moved beyond simply disaggregating data by male and female. Chapters three and four cover the second theme. Chapter three considers the role of gender relations in the macroeconomic aggregates of consumption, savings, investment, and government expenditure and the implications for macroeconomic policy in these areas. Chapter four examines gender relations and economic growth. Chapters five through seven focus on the third theme. Chapter five examines the labor market. Chapter six examines how globalization affects gender relations, particularly employment. Chapter seven concentrates on women's access to finance and documents gender asymmetries in this market. Chapter eight, on the fourth theme, highlights the impact fiscal policies have on gender relations. It documents how policy can be made more gender specific and reports on the progress made by countries that have adopted gender-responsive government budgeting. Chapter nine summarizes what is known about gender and macroeconomic policy, noting areas in which the literature is well developed as well as areas that require further research and study.