Robalino, Robalino, David A.

Labor and Youth, Human Development Network, World Bank, Employment and Development Program, German Institute of Labor (IZA)
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Labor markets, Social Insurance
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Labor and Youth, Human Development Network, World Bank
Employment and Development Program, German Institute of Labor (IZA)
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Last updated January 31, 2023
David Robalino is the Lead Economist and Leader of the Labor and Youth Team in the Human Development Anchor of the World Bank.  He also serves as Co-Director of the Employment and Development program at IZA – the Institute for the Study of the Labor.  Since joining the Bank David has been working on issues related to social security, labor markets and fiscal policy. He has worked in several countries in Latin America, the Middle East and North Africa, Sub-Saharan Africa, and Asia.  David has published on issues related to macroeconomics and labor markets, social insurance and pensions, health financing, the economics of HIV/AIDS, and the economics of climate change.  More recently David has been working on issues related to the design of unemployment benefits systems in middle income countries, the extension of social insurance programs to the informal sector, and the integration of social protection and education/training policies to improve labor market outcomes and productivity growth.  Prior to joining the Bank David was a researcher at the RAND Corporation where he was involved in research on health, population and labor, climate change, and the development of quantitative methods for policy analysis under conditions of uncertainty.  David also served in the Presidential Committee for Social Security Reform in Ecuador.  David did his graduate studies at the Sorbonne University in Paris and the RAND Graduate School in Santa Monica – California.  

Publication Search Results

Now showing 1 - 3 of 3
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    Labor Markets in Low and Middle-Income Countries : Trends and Implications for Social Protection and Labor Policies
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2012-03) Cho, Yoonyoung ; Margolis, David N. ; Newhouse, David ; Robalino, David A.
    This paper reviews labor market trends throughout the developing world, identifies issues and policy priorities across groups of countries, and derives implications for the World Bank's new social protection and labor strategy. Five key issues are identified: a high and growing share of the labor force that is self?employed or working in household enterprises, exposure to income shocks with limited access to risk management systems, low female participation rates, high youth unemployment rates, and the need to manage migration flows and remittances. The paper then details a three pronged agenda based on providing incentives and conditions for work, improving the efficiency of job creation, and managing risks / facilitating labor market transitions. This suggests that the Bank should emphasize self?employment and entrepreneurship promotion, provision of skills and development opportunities, and facilitation of labor market transitions into and between jobs, while protecting workers from shocks and paying particular attention to youth.
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    Labor Market Policies under a Youth Bulge : How to Benefit from Demographic Dividend in Pakistan
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2012-12) Robalino, David ; Cho, Yoonyoung
    This paper assesses labor market trends and outcomes in Pakistan over the past decade. It shows that despite a high rate of employment growth, labor market outcomes have been disappointing: most jobs have been created in low productivity sectors/activities, and even if they provide a minimum level of income to often avoid poverty, they remain low quality jobs providing little or no protection to workers against shocks. In addition, female participation rates for women are very low and there are large income disparities between rural and urban areas, and across sectors. A fundamental part of the problem is the low level of education of the labor force. Pakistan is currently in the midst of a demographic transition that is bringing a growing number of youth into the labor market. This youth bulge that is unwinding opens both challenges and opportunities. Challenges because of the need to create enough jobs to employ new entrants; Opportunities, because if this is done the country will enjoy a demographic dividend , as the share of those employed relative to the dependent increases, driving up income per capita and standards of living.
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    Supporting Self-Employment and Small-Scale Entrepreneurship : Potential Programs to Improve Livelihoods for Vulnerable Workers
    (World Bank Group, Washington, DC, 2014-10) Cho, Yoonyoung ; Robalino, David ; Watson, Samantha
    Worldwide, around 55 percent of workers are self-employed, and about three-quarters of these are likely to be subsistence entrepreneurs. These self-employed workers include farmers and own-account workers, many of whom work in small household enterprises without pay. A large proportion of these workers live in poor or vulnerable households. In Sub-Saharan Africa, for instance, close to 80 percent of the self-employed are poor. While numerous countries have adopted programs that aim to promote self-employment and small-scale entrepreneurship (SSE), the design of such programs seems ill suited to respond to the needs of those who engage in entrepreneurial activities not by choice, but by necessity. This note discusses the potential public policy role of programs aimed at improving the livelihoods of subsistence entrepreneurs . It begins by looking at the characteristics of self-employed workers, the different types of entrepreneurs, and the constraints they face. It then analyzes the potential role of public policy in improving the earning opportunities of subsistence entrepreneurs, the types of programs that could be used, and general issues to be considered when designing and implementing pilot interventions. The note has four main messages: identify interventions to support subsistence entrepreneurs, the evidence of what works is limited, interventions that complement safety net programs, adopt a more systematic approach to designing, implementing, and evaluating new programs.