Andres, Luis A.

Global Practice on Water
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Last updated January 31, 2023
Luis Andrés is Lead Economist in the Water Global Practice at the World Bank. Earlier, Dr. Andres held positions in the Sustainable Development Department for the Latin America and the Caribbean, and the South Asia Regions. His work at the World Bank involves both analytical and advisory services, with a focus on infrastructure, mainly in water and energy sectors, impact evaluations, private sector participation, regulation, and empirical microeconomics. He worked with numerous Latin American, South Asian, and East Europe governments. Before joining the World Bank, he was the Chief of Staff for the Secretary of Fiscal and Social Equity for the Government of Argentina and held other positions in the Chief of Cabinet of Ministries and the Ministry of Economy. He holds a Ph.D. in Economics from the University of Chicago and he has authored books, chapters in several books, monographs, and articles on development policy issues.

Publication Search Results

Now showing 1 - 7 of 7
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    Sanitation and Externalities : Evidence from Early Childhood Health in Rural India
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2014-01) Andres, Luis A. ; Briceno, Bertha ; Chase, Claire ; Echenique, Juan A.
    This paper estimates two sources of benefits related to sanitation infrastructure access on early childhood health: a direct benefit a household receives when moving from open to fixed-point defecation or from unimproved sanitation to improved sanitation, and an external benefit (externality) produced by the neighborhood's access to sanitation infrastructure. The paper uses a sample of children under 48 months in rural areas of India from the Third Round of District Level Household Survey 2007-08 and finds evidence of positive and significant direct benefits and concave positive external effects for both improved sanitation and fixed-point defecation. There is a 47 percent reduction in diarrhea prevalence between children living in a household without access to improved sanitation in a village without coverage of improved sanitation and children living in a household with access to improved sanitation in a village with complete coverage. One-fourth of this benefit is due to the direct benefit leaving the rest to external gains. Finally, all the benefits from eliminating open defecation come from improved sanitation and not other sanitation solutions.
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    A Multiple-Arm, Cluster-Randomized Impact Evaluation of the Clean India (Swachh Bharat) Mission Program in Rural Punjab, India
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2020-05) Andres, Luis ; Deb, Saubhik ; Joseph, George ; Larenas, Maria Isabel ; Grabinsky Zabludovsky, Jonathan
    This study reports the findings of a large-scale, multiple-arm, cluster-randomized control study carried out in rural Punjab, India, to assess the impact of a flagship sanitation program of the Government of India. The program, the Clean India Mission for Villages, was implemented between October 2014 and October 2019 and aimed to encourage the construction of toilets, eliminate the practice of open defecation, and improve the awareness and practice of good hygiene across rural India. It utilized a combination of behavioral change campaigns, centered on the community-led total sanitation approach, and financial incentives for eligible households. The study also evaluates the incremental effects of intensive hygiene awareness campaigns in selected schools and follow-up initiatives in selected communities. The study finds that the coverage of “safely managed” toilets among households without toilets increased by 6.8–10.4 percentage points across various intervention arms, compared with a control group. Open defecation was reduced by 7.3–7.8 percentage points. The program also had significant positive impacts on hygiene awareness among adults and children, although the interventions of school campaigns and intensive follow-up were of limited additional impact.
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    Beyond Money: Does Migration Experience Transfer Gender Norms? Empirical Evidence from Kerala, India
    (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2022-03-14) Joseph, George ; Wang, Qiao ; Chellaraj, Gnanaraj ; Tas, Emcet Oktay ; Andres, Luis Alberto ; Javaid, Syed Usman ; Rajan, Irudaya
    This paper examines the impact of return migration from Saudi Arabia and the Gulf on the transfer of gender norms to the Indian state of Kerala. Migration to countries in the Middle East has led to significant remittance flows and economic prosperity, although the effects on social norms and attitudes remain largely unexplored. The paper finds that returning migrants from Saudi Arabia tend to exhibit conservative values regarding gender-based violence and extreme attitudes pertaining to the perpetration of physical violence against women. Compared with those who have no migration experience, the attitudes of returning migrants from Saudi Arabia toward gender-based violence were more conservative by three standard deviations, while the attitudes of those returning from the Gulf were less conservative by 0.5 standard deviation. Similarly, compared with those with no migration experience, returning migrants from Saudi Arabia were more conservative by 2.6 standard deviations regarding extreme attitudes related to gender norms, such as sexual assault, while those returning from the Gulf were less conservative by 0.7 standard deviation. These results show that migration experience can have a substantial impact on the gender attitudes of returning migrants, with potential implications for migration and gender policies in Kerala and for countries that send a large share of temporary migrants overseas for work.
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    Underreporting of Gender-Based Violence in Kerala, India: An Application of the List Randomization Method
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2017-04) Joseph, George ; Javaid, Syed Usman ; Andres, Luis Alberto ; Chellaraj, Gnanaraj ; Solotaroff, Jennifer L. ; Rajan, S. Irudaya
    This paper analyzes the incidence and extent to which domestic violence and physical harassment on public/private buses is underreported in Kerala, India, using the list randomization technique. The results indicate that the level of underreporting is over nine percentage points for domestic violence and negligible for physical harassment on public/private buses. Urban households, especially poor urban households, tend to have higher levels of incidence of domestic violence. Further, women and those who are professionally educated tend to underreport more than others. Underreporting is also higher among the youngest and oldest age cohorts. For physical harassment on public/private buses, rural population -- especially the rural non --poor and urban females—tend to underreport compared with the rural poor and urban males.
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    Precarious Drop: Reassessing Patterns of Female Labor Force Participation in India
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2017-04) Andres, Luis A. ; Dasgupta, Basab ; Joseph, George ; Abraham, Vinoj ; Correia, Maria
    This paper uses successive rounds of National Sample Survey Organization data from 1993-94 to 2011-12, and draws from census data. This paper (i) provides a description of nearly two decades of patterns and trends in female labor force participation in India; (ii) estimates the extent of the recent decline in female labor force participation; and (iii) examines and assesses the contribution of various demographic and socioeconomic factors in explaining the female labor force participation decision and the recent the drop. The analysis finds that female labor force participation dropped by 19.6 million women from 2004–05 to 2011–12. Participation declined by 11.4 percent, from 42.6 to 31.2 percent during 1993–94 to 2011–12. Approximately 53 percent of this drop occurred in rural India, among those ages 15 to 24 years. Factors such as educational attainment, socioeconomic status, and household composition largely contributed to the drop, although their effects were more pronounced in rural areas. Specifically, the analysis finds a U-shaped relationship between levels of educational attainment and female labor force participation. The decomposition of the contribution of these various determinants to the female labor force participation decision suggests that stability in family income, as indicated by the increasing share of regular wage earners and declining share of casual labor in the composition of family labor supply, has led female family members to choose dropping out of, rather than joining, the labor force. The findings of this paper suggest that conventional approaches to increasing female labor force participation (such as education and skills and legal provisions) will be insufficient. Policies should center on promoting the acceptability of female employment and investing in growing economic sectors that are more attractive for female employment.
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    Sustainability of Demand Responsive Approaches to Rural Water Supply: The Case of Kerala
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2017-04) Andres, Luis ; Deb, Saubhik ; Gambrill, Martin ; Giannone, Elisa ; Joseph, George ; Kannath, Pramod ; Kumar, Manish ; Kurian, P.K. ; Many, Rajesh ; Muwonge, Abdu
    This paper presents the findings of an impact evaluation to assess the performance and sustainability of the demand responsive community-based approach toward rural water supply in the state of Kerala, India. To achieve the study's objectives, conceptual definitions of the "performance" and "sustainability" of rural water supply schemes were first developed, as were indicators for their systematic measurement. Performance and sustainability indicators for demand responsive approaches were compared with the more conventional supply-based approach to rural water supply. The study found that participatory community driven water supply schemes were more successful in delivering adequate, regular, and quality water supply, experienced fewer breakdowns and water shortages, and enjoyed higher consumer satisfaction with the quality of service delivery. The success of the community-based approach demonstrates that people are willing to contribute toward the capital costs of the schemes and pay for the water they use for a better service delivery. The findings of this paper suggest that the community-based approach can be a superior alternative to traditional supply driven models in expanding and improving water service delivery in rural areas.
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    The Road to Opportunities in Rural India: The Economic and Social Impacts of PMGSY
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2021-12-01) Herrera Dappe, Matias ; Alam, Muneeza Mehmood ; Andres, Luis
    This report presents the results of an impact evaluation of the Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana (PMGSY) rural roads program in India. The program targeted the provision of all-weather roads to about 178,000 habitations across India. The impact evaluation uses a difference-in-difference approach and panel data from the states of Himachal Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, and Rajasthan collected in 2009 and 2017. The evaluation finds that PMGSY improved accessibility, particularly in hilly areas, increased access to economic opportunities, triggering a change in the structure of employment in rural India, and had a positive impact on human capital formation in rural India, with boys and girls benefiting equally.