Borgomeo, Edoardo

Water Global Practice
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Water resources planning, Climate Adaptation, Risk Management
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Last updated April 17, 2023
Edoardo’s work focuses on water resources management, climate change adaptation, and infrastructure planning. In his current assignment, he leads analytical and advisory activities on water security and transboundary water management and works on water sectir projects in Africa and Central Asia. Prior to joining the World Bank, he worked at the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations in Rome and at the International Water Management Institute in Sri Lanka. He has held research appointments at the European University Institute, University of Oxford, International Institute for Applied System Analysis, and Imaflora. In 2018 he was awarded the Prince Sultan bin Abdulaziz International Prize for Water for his research work on water resources planning in times of climate change. He holds an undergraduate degree from Imperial College London and a PhD on climate change adaptation in the water sector from the University of Oxford.

Publication Search Results

Now showing 1 - 7 of 7
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    Pakistan: Getting More from Water
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2019-01-01) Young, William J. ; Anwar, Arif ; Bhatti, Tousif ; Borgomeo, Edoardo ; Davies, Stephen ; Garthwaite III, William R. ; Gilmont, E. Michael ; Leb, Christina ; Lytton, Lucy ; Makin, Ian ; Saeed, Basharat
    This report builds on prior work to provide a new, comprehensive, and balanced view of water security in Pakistan, stressing the importance of the diverse social, environmental, and economic outcomes from water. The report highlights the complex water issues that Pakistan must tackle to improve water security and sheds new light on conventional assumptions around water. It seeks to elevate water security as an issue critical for national development. The report assesses current water security and identifies important water-related challenges that may hinder progress in economic and human development. It identifies unmitigated water-related risks, as well as opportunities where water can contribute to economic growth and poverty reduction. The report analyzes how the performance and architecture of the water sector are related to broader economic, social, and environmental outcomes. It models alternative economic trajectories to identify where intervention can lead to a more water-secure future. A consideration of water sector architecture and performance and how these determine outcome leads to recommendations for improving aspects of sector performance and adjusting sector architecture for better outcomes. The sector performance analysis considers (a) management of the water resource, (b) delivery of water services, and (c) mitigation of water-related risks. The description of sector architecture considers water governance, infrastructure, and financing.
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    The Water-Energy-Food Nexus in the Middle East and North Africa: Scenarios for a Sustainable Future
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2018-06) Borgomeo, Edoardo ; Jagerskog, Anders ; Talbi, Amal ; Wijnen, Marcus ; Hejazi, Mohamad ; Miralles-Wilhelm, Fernando
    Water, energy, and agriculture have been conventionally dealt with separately in investment planning. For each of these sectors, regulatory frameworks, organizations, and infrastructures have been put in place to address sector-specific challenges and demands. As the Middle East and North Africa works towards building a more sustainable future, a nexus approach that considers the risks and synergies among these sectors is needed. To demonstrate the added value of a nexus approach, this report applies scenario analysis and integrated assessment modelling of the water-energy-food nexus to the Middle East and North Africa. The analysis finds that water scarcity increases in all countries in the region over the coming decades, mostly due to growing demands. More importantly, the analysis finds that many countries in the region could run out of fossil groundwater by 2050 unless measures to curb unsustainable abstraction are implemented. The impacts of growing scarcity on agriculture are significant, with production projected to drop by 60 by 2050 in some countries. On the upside, reducing the dependence of the agricultural and energy sectors on water and transitioning to renewable energies can reduce water scarcity, at the same time reducing greenhouse gas emissions. This report is targeted to policy makers, the academic community, and a wider global audience interested in exploring the interactions between water, agriculture, and energy.
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    Ebb and Flow, Volume 2: Water in the Shadow of Conflict in the Middle East and North Africa
    (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2021-08-23) Borgomeo, Edoardo ; Jägerskog, Anders ; Zaveri, Esha ; Russ, Jason ; Khan, Amjad ; Damania, Richard
    The Middle East and North Africa Region encapsulates many of the issues surrounding water and human mobility. It is the most water-scarce region in the world and is experiencing unprecedented levels of forced displacement. Ebb and Flow: Volume 2. Water in the Shadow of Conflict in the Middle East and North Africa examines the links between water risks (harmful outcomes related to water, from droughts and floods to lack of sanitation), conflict, and forced displacement. It aims to better explain how to address the vulnerabilities of forcibly displaced persons and their host communities, and to identify water policy and investment responses. Contrary to common belief, the report finds that the evidence linking water risks with conflict and forced displacement in the region is not unequivocal. Water risks are more frequently related to cooperation than to conflict at both domestic and international levels. But while conflict is not necessarily a consequence of water risks, the reverse is a real and concerning phenomenon: conflict amplifies water risks. Since 2011, there have been at least 180 instances of intentional targeting of water infrastructure in conflicts in Gaza, Libya, the Syrian Arab Republic, and the Republic of Yemen. Forcibly displaced persons and their host communities face myriad water risks. Access to safe drinking water is a daily struggle for millions of forcibly displaced Iraqis, Libyans, Palestinians, Syrians, Yemenis, and international migrants in the region, heightening public health risks. Tanker trucks often help fill the gap; however, significant issues of water quality, reliability, and affordability remain. Host communities also face localized declines in water availability and quality as well as unplanned burdens on water services following the arrival of forcibly displaced persons. The reality of protracted forced displacement requires a shift from humanitarian support toward a development approach for water security, including structured yet flexible planning to deliver water services and sustain water resources for forcibly displaced persons and their host communities.
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    Ebb and Flow, Volume 1: Water, Migration, and Development
    (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2021-08-23) Zaveri, Esha ; Russ, Jason ; Khan, Amjad ; Damania, Richard ; Borgomeo, Edoardo ; Jägerskog, Anders
    Migration shapes the lives of those who move and transforms the geographies and economies of their points of departure and destinations alike. The water sector, and the availability of water itself, implicitly and explicitly shape migration flows. Ebb and Flow, Volume 1. Water, Migration, and Development presents new global evidence to advance our understanding of how fluctuations in water availability, as induced by rainfall shocks, influence internal migration, and hence regional development. It finds that cumulative water deficits result in five times as much migration as water excess does. But there are important nuances in why and when these events lead to migration. Where there is extreme poverty and migration is costly, water deficits are more likely to trap people than induce them to migrate. Water shocks can also influence who migrates. Workers leaving regions because of water deficits are often less advantaged than typical migrants and bring with them lower skills, raising important implications for the migrants themselves and receiving regions. Cities are the destination of most internal migrants, but even here, water scarcity can haunt them. Water shortages in urban areas, which lead to so-called day zero events, can significantly slow urban growth and compound the vulnerability of migrants. No single policy can be completely effective at protecting people and their assets from water shocks. Instead, the report puts forth a menu of overlapping and complementary policy options that target both people and places to improve livelihoods and turn water-induced crises into opportunities for growth. A key message is that policies that focus on reducing the impacts of water shocks must be complemented by strategies that broaden opportunities and build the long-term resilience of communities. Doing so will give individuals more agency to determine the best outcome for themselves and to thrive wherever they may choose to locate.
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    Rising from the Depths: Water Security and Fragility in South Sudan
    (Washington, DC : World Bank, 2023) Borgomeo, Edoardo ; Chase, Claire ; Salazar Godoy, Nicolas ; Osei Kwadwo, Victor
    In 2022, South Sudan was ranked as the world’s most vulnerable country to climate change and the one most lacking in coping capacity. South Sudan is also one of the world’s most politically fragile countries. Rising from the Depths explores opportunities and trade-offs for aligning South Sudan’s water-related investments and policies with its commitment to peace and its climate change adaptation needs. This report elevates water security as an issue critical for national development and stability—not just as a humanitarian need. With a focus on water security for people, production, and protection, the report shows that water insecurity is an existential threat to South Sudan. One in two South Sudanese live in areas exposed to moderate flood hazard; the country ranks seventh in the world for share of population exposed to river floods. Lack of access to safe drinking water supply and sanitation is also a core concern: more than 60 percent of the population use unimproved sources and 75 percent practice open defecation. Women and girls tend to be disproportionately impacted by these water-related threats. The report illustrates the negative implications of these challenges on health and nutrition, forced displacement, gender, and conflict. Yet, the challenges of water in South Sudan are also an opportunity. Rising from the Depths shows that South Sudan can harness the ubiquity of water as a tool to advance national development and stability. Priorities include strengthening nascent policy and institutional frameworks to guide water sector investments and ensure their sustainability, using a portfolio of infrastructure options to manage water resources, and addressing the country’s water supply and sanitation crisis. The identification, design, and implementation of investments should be guided by comprehensive feasibility assessments that include the investments' impact on the country’s rich biodiversity and social and conflict dynamics. Although infrastructure will be needed, it will not be enough. Water security in South Sudan will be achieved not solely by trying to control water and divert its flow but also by focusing on increasing community preparedness; delineating areas for water; and making productive use of water for household consumption, livelihoods, and development.
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    Turbulent Waters: Pursuing Water Security in Fragile Contexts
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2017-03-14) Sadoff, Claudia W. ; Borgomeo, Edoardo ; de Waal, Dominick ; de Waal, Dominick
    Water insecurity—ranging from chronic water scarcity to lack of access to safe drinking water and sanitation services, to hydrological uncertainty and extremes (floods and droughts)—can cause severe disruptions and compound fragilities in social, economic, and environmental systems. Untangling the role of water insecurity in contributing to fragility is difficult, yet it is becoming a fundamental question for water policy worldwide given the scale of the fragility challenge. This report explores the dynamics between water insecurity and fragility. It suggests that water security is more difficult to achieve in fragile contexts because of a range of factors, including weak institutions and information systems, strained human and financial resources, and degraded infrastructure. This report focuses on three main mechanisms by which water insecurity and fragility interact: (1) failure to provide citizens with basic water services; (2) failure to protect citizens from water-related disasters; and (3) failure to preserve surface, ground and transboundary water resources.
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    The Economics of Water Scarcity in the Middle East and North Africa: Institutional Solutions
    (Washington, DC : World Bank, 2023-04-26) de Waal, Dominick ; Khemani, Stuti ; Barone, Andrea ; Borgomeo, Edoardo
    Despite massive infrastructure investments, countries in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region continue to face unprecedented water scarcity due to climate change, population growth, and socioeconomic development. Current policy regimes for managing water across competing needs are primarily determined by state control of large infrastructure. Policy makers across the region understand the unsustainability of water allocations and that increasing investments in new infrastructure and technologies to increase water supply place a growing financial burden on governments. However, standard solutions for demand management—reallocating water to higher value uses, reducing waste, and increasing tariffs—pose difficult political dilemmas that, more often than not, are left unresolved. Without institutional reform, the region will likely remain in water distress even with increased financing for water sector infrastructure.The Economics of Water Scarcity in the Middle East and North Africa: Institutional Solutions confronts the persistence and severity of water scarcity in MENA. The report draws on the tools of public economics to address two crucial challenges facing states in MENA: lack of legitimacy and trust. Evidence from the World Values Survey shows that people in the region believe that a key role of government is to keep prices down and that governments are reluctant to raise tariffs because of the risk of widespread protests. Instead of avoiding the “politically sensitive” issue of water scarcity, this report argues that reform leaders and their external partners can reform national water institutions and draw on local political contestation to establish a new social contract. The crisis and emotive power of water in the region can be used to bolster legitimacy and trust and build a sustainable, inclusive, thriving economy that is resilient to climate change.