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Chukwuma, Adanna

World Bank Health, Nutrition, and Population Global Practice
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HEALTH SYSTEM, HEALTH FINANCING, SERVICE DELIVERY, POLITICAL ECONOMY, ARMENIA, RUSSIA
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World Bank Health, Nutrition, and Population Global Practice
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Last updated: January 5, 2024
Biography
Adanna is a Senior Health Specialist in the Health, Nutrition, and Population Global Practice, where she leads the design, implementation, and evaluation of investment operations. She has over ten years of experience advising national reforms to improve access to high-quality health care, through service delivery organization, strategic purchasing, revenue mobilization, and demand generation, including in Sri Lanka, Sierra Leone, India, Moldova, Tajikistan, the South Caucasus Countries, and Romania. She has published on health care financing, access, and quality in peer-reviewed journals, including the Bulletin of the World Health Organization and Social Science and Medicine. Adanna obtained a medical degree from the University of Nigeria, a Master of Science in Global Health from the University of Oxford, and a Doctor of Science in Health Systems from Harvard University.
Citations 198 Scopus

Publication Search Results

Now showing 1 - 10 of 26
  • Publication
    A Comparison of Health Achievements in Rwanda and Burundi
    (FXB Harvard School of Public Health, 2018-06) Iyer, Hari S.; Chukwuma, Adanna; Mugunga, Jean Claude; Manzi, Anatole; Ndayizigiye, Melino; Anand, Sudhir
    Strong primary health care systems are essential for implementing universal health coverage and fulfilling health rights entitlements, but disagreement exists over how best to create them. Comparing countries with similar histories, lifestyle practices, and geography but divergent health outcomes can yield insights into possible mechanisms for improvement. Rwanda and Burundi are two such countries. Both faced protracted periods of violence in the 1990s, leading to significant societal upheaval. In subsequent years, Rwanda’s improvement in health has been far greater than Burundi’s. To understand how this divergence occurred, we studied trends in life expectancy following the periods of instability in both countries, as well as the health policies implemented after these conflicts. We used the World Bank’s World Development Indicators to assess trends in life expectancy in the two countries and then evaluated health policy reforms using Walt and Gilson’s framework. Following both countries’ implementation of health sector policies in 2005, we found a statistically significant increase in life expectancy in Rwanda after adjusting for GDP per capita (14.7 years, 95% CI: 11.4–18.0), relative to Burundi (4.6 years, 95% CI: 1.8–7.5). Strong public sector leadership, investments in health information systems, equity-driven policies, and the use of foreign aid to invest in local capacity helped Rwanda achieve greater health gains compared to Burundi.
  • Publication
    Payment Incentives for Improved Quality of Health Service Delivery in Republika Srpska and the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina
    (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2024-01-05) Huseinagic, Senad; Stevic, Sinisa; Birungi, Charles; Chukwuma, Adanna
    This report outlines a strategic approach to introduce pay-for-performance (P4P) incentives for improved noncommunicable disease (NCD) care in Republika Srpska (RS) and the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (FBiH). Developed under the Health Systems Improvement Project (HSIP) and Multi-Donor Trust Fund (MDTF) for Health Systems Reform, the approach focuses on evidence-based, technically sound, and politically feasible strategies. Participatorily developed, the report synthesizes global lessons and analyzes the policy environment in RS and FBiH. It proposes key design features, addressing strategic opportunities and operational challenges. Behavioral economics insights and political economy factors inform the approach, identifying key levers, opportunities, and challenges affecting P4P implementation capacity. To enhance NCD care quality, the report recommends changes in the provider payment mix, tailored reforms at entity and cantonal levels, and active service user engagement. Emphasizing the importance of linking payment incentives to performance, the proposed design spans dimensions such as performance measures, basis of payment, payment attributes, recipient of payment, and targeted outcomes. An enabling environment is deemed critical. Relatedly, effective implementation requires robust data systems, stakeholder engagement, adapted legal frameworks, and suitable institutional arrangements. Technical assistance and budgetary support needs are identified. It is expected that P4P implementation will enhance NCD care coverage and quality, thereby improving health outcomes and overall health system performance in RS and FBiH.
  • Publication
    Quality of Antenatal Care Predicts Retention in Skilled Birth Attendance: A Multilevel Analysis of 28 African Countries
    (Springer Nature, 2017-05-17) Chukwuma, Adanna; Mbachu, Chinyere; Weze, Kelechi
    An effective continuum of maternal care ensures that mothers receive essential health packages from pre-pregnancy to delivery, and postnatally, reducing the risk of maternal death. However, across Africa, coverage of skilled birth attendance is lower than coverage for antenatal care, indicating mothers are not retained in the continuum between antenatal care and delivery. This paper explores predictors of retention of antenatal care clients in skilled birth attendance across Africa, including sociodemographic factors and quality of antenatal care received. Among ANC clients in the study sample, 66% received SBA. Adjusting for all demographic covariates and country indicators, the odds of retention in SBA were higher among ANC clients that had their blood pressure checked, received information about pregnancy complications, had blood tests conducted, received at least one tetanus injection, and had urine tests conducted. Higher quality of ANC predicts retention in SBA in Africa. Improving quality of skilled care received prenatally may increase client retention during delivery, reducing maternal mortality.
  • Publication
    Stakeholder Perspectives on e-Health Implementation in Armenia
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2018-06) Chukwuma, Adanna
    There is general recognition across stakeholders in Armenia that the e-health system can facilitate exchange of clinical and non-clinical information, transparency and accountability in service provision, and support for monitoring and evaluation. By tracking patient movement across health facilities, the e-health system links budgetary allocations to service use, enabling efficiency and supporting performance-based financing. However, scale-up of the e-health system has presented financial, technical, and organizational challenges that have negative implications for the sustainability of the system, efficient health care delivery, and the system’s ability to meet informational requirements for health decision-making. There are opportunities to iteratively adapt the e-health system in Armenia through a systematic assessment of the e-health system scale-up experience and through regular and structured interactions between the private operator of the e-health system, key stakeholders involved in the implementation of the e-health system, and policy makers that can facilitate the adoption of needed changes. The Armenian experience of implementing an integrated health information system provides useful lessons for improving the functionality of the current system and for adopting technologies to improve health systems more generally. To encourage facilities to continue to use the e-health system, there is an immediate need for financial support for the associated recurrent costs for maintaining the e-health system and technical assistance, including training and user manuals, to guide everyday use by medical practitioners.
  • Publication
    More Money for Health: Resource Mobilization for Universal Health Coverage in Armenia
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2021-12-20) Maduko, Franklin; Chukwuma, Adanna; Minasyan, Gevorg; Manookian, Armineh; Saldarriaga Noel, Miguel Angel; Tandon, Ajay
    Armenia has made significant gains in population health, but faces challenges in ensuring health care access, due to financial barriers. As mortality caused by infectious diseases has fallen over the past two decades, the prevalence of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) has increased. The NCD burden can be reduced via public health measures, such as tobacco control exposure, and access to high-quality health care. However, financial barriers to access are a significant challenge.
  • Publication
    Invitations, Incentives, and Conditions: A Randomized Evaluation of Demand-Side Interventions for Health Screenings in Armenia
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2020-07) De Walque, Damien; Chukwuma, Adanna; Ayivi-Guedehoussou, Nono; Koshkakaryan, Marianna
    The study is a randomized controlled trial that investigates the impact of four demand-side interventions on health screening for diabetes and hypertension among Armenian adults ages 35-68 who had not been tested in the last 12 months. The interventions are personal invitations from a physician (intervention group 1), personal invitations with information about peer screening behavior (intervention group 2), a labeled but unconditional cash transfer in the form of a pharmacy voucher (intervention group 3), and a conditional cash transfer in the form of a pharmacy voucher (intervention group 4). Compared with the control group in which only 3.5 percent of participants went for both screenings during the study period, interventions 1 to 3 led to a significant increase in the screening rate of about 15 percentage points among participants. The highest intervention impact was measured among recipients in intervention group 4, whose uptake of screening on both tests increased by 31.2 percentage points. The levels of cost-effectiveness of intervention groups 1, 2, and 4 are similar while for intervention group 3 it is about twice more expensive per additional person screened.
  • Publication
    Disrupted Service Delivery? The Impact of Conflict on Antenatal Care Quality in Kenya
    (Frontiers Media, 2021-02-28) Chukwuma, Adanna; Ekhator-Mobayode, Uche Eseosa
    African countries facing conflict have higher levels of maternal mortality. Understanding the gaps in the utilization of high-quality maternal health care is essential to improving maternal survival in these states. Few studies have estimated the impact of conflict on the quality of health care. In this study, we estimated the impact of conflict on the quality of health care in Kenya, a country with multiple overlapping conflicts and significant disparities in maternal survival. Our study demonstrates the importance of designing maternal health policy based on the context-specific evidence on the mechanisms through which conflict affects health care. In Kenya, deterioration of equipment and infrastructure does not appear to be the main mechanism through which conflict has affected ANC quality. Further research should focus on better understanding the determinants of the gaps in process quality in conflict-affected settings, including provider motivation, competence, and incentives.
  • Publication
    Challenges and Opportunities for Purchasing High-Quality Health Care: Lessons from Armenia
    (Taylor and Francis, 2021-04-29) Chukwuma, Adanna; Gong, Estelle
    This paper examines how purchasing decisions in Armenia may contribute to barriers in using high-quality health care, particularly for non-communicable diseases, drawing on a review of the literature and key informant interviews. The paper adapts the strategic health purchasing progress framework, to examine how characteristics of purchasing, the health system, and the political, administrative, and macro-fiscal environment may have facilitated or hindered the attainment of service delivery goals. We conclude with six lessons for reforms aimed at improving the coverage and quality of health care in Armenia. First, increasing the political priority of access to quality of health care is a pre-requisite to advancing reforms to address these issues. Second, improved purchasing governance in Armenia will require a purchaser that can make decisions without political interference, with appropriate accountability mechanisms, improvements in technical capacity, and the routine use of data systems. Third, there is a need for the regulatory framework to ensure that revisions of the benefits package contribute to reducing the disease burden and improving access to care. Fourth, regulations governing quality-related criteria for provider selection should be enforced and include considerations for process quality. Fifth, payment incentives should be revised to encourage an increase in the supply of primary health care, reduce bypassing for hospital care, and improve the quality of services. Sixth, the potential of purchasing to improve service delivery will be dependent on increased pre-paid and pooled funds and better governance of the quality of care.
  • Publication
    Health Service Delivery and Political Trust in Nigeria
    (Elsevier, 2019-04) Chukwuma, Adanna; Croke, Kevin
    Do improvements in health service delivery affect trust in political leaders in Africa? Citizens expect their government to provide social services. Intuitively, improvements in service delivery should lead to higher levels of trust in and support for political leaders. However, in contexts where inadequate services are the norm, and where political support is linked to ethnic or religious affiliation, there may be weak linkages between improvements in service delivery and changes in trust in political leaders. To examine this question empirically, we take advantage of a national intervention that improved health service delivery in 500 primary health care facilities in Nigeria, to estimate the impact of residence within 10 km of one or more of the intervention facilities on trust in the president, local councils, the ruling party, and opposition parties. Using difference-in-difference models, we show that proximity to the intervention led to increases in trust in the president and the ruling party. By contrast, we find no evidence of increased trust in the local council or opposition parties. Our study also examines the role of ethnicity and religious affiliation in mediating the observed increases in trust in the president. While there is a large literature suggesting that both the targeting of interventions, and the response of citizens to interventions is often mediated by ethnic, geographic or religious identity, by contrast, we find no evidence that the intervention was targeted at the president's ethnic group, zone, or state of origin. Moreover, there is suggestive evidence that the intervention increased trust in the president more among those who did not share these markers of identity with the president. This highlights the possibility that broad-based efforts to improve health services can increase trust in political leaders even in settings where political attitudes are often thought to be mediated by group identity.
  • Publication
    Reforming the Basic Benefits Package in Armenia: Modeling Insights from the Health Interventions Prioritization Tool
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2021-03-26) Fraser, Nicole; Chukwuma, Adanna; Koshkakaryan, Marianna; Yengibaryan, Lusine; Hou, Xiaohui; Wilkinson, Tommy
    Armenia is an upper-middle-income (UMI) country in the South Caucasus region. The Coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic and a regional crisis have resulted in the real economy's contraction following rapid growth in the past five years. Improving access to high-quality health care is essential for responding to non-communicable diseases (NCDs) and preventing mortality from infectious diseases in Armenia. Armenia is faced with the challenge of achieving Universal Health Coverage (UHC) when funding for health services faces downward pressures due to a donor funding transition, the Coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic, and regional conflict. This report is part of the World Bank’s technical support toward universal health coverage in Armenia, which includes advisory services and analytics aimed at supporting the government’s efforts to expand access to high-quality health care. The report draws on the Health Interventions prioritization tool to optimize allocations across essential health services in the basic benefits package and estimate the potential impact of these allocations on population health.