Chukwuma, Adanna

World Bank Health, Nutrition, and Population Global Practice
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World Bank Health, Nutrition, and Population Global Practice
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Last updated: January 5, 2024
Adanna is a Senior Health Specialist in the Health, Nutrition, and Population Global Practice, where she leads the design, implementation, and evaluation of investment operations. She has over ten years of experience advising national reforms to improve access to high-quality health care, through service delivery organization, strategic purchasing, revenue mobilization, and demand generation, including in Sri Lanka, Sierra Leone, India, Moldova, Tajikistan, the South Caucasus Countries, and Romania. She has published on health care financing, access, and quality in peer-reviewed journals, including the Bulletin of the World Health Organization and Social Science and Medicine. Adanna obtained a medical degree from the University of Nigeria, a Master of Science in Global Health from the University of Oxford, and a Doctor of Science in Health Systems from Harvard University.
Citations 198 Scopus

Publication Search Results

Now showing 1 - 10 of 19
  • Publication
    A Comparison of Health Achievements in Rwanda and Burundi
    (FXB Harvard School of Public Health, 2018-06) Iyer, Hari S.; Chukwuma, Adanna; Mugunga, Jean Claude; Manzi, Anatole; Ndayizigiye, Melino; Anand, Sudhir
    Strong primary health care systems are essential for implementing universal health coverage and fulfilling health rights entitlements, but disagreement exists over how best to create them. Comparing countries with similar histories, lifestyle practices, and geography but divergent health outcomes can yield insights into possible mechanisms for improvement. Rwanda and Burundi are two such countries. Both faced protracted periods of violence in the 1990s, leading to significant societal upheaval. In subsequent years, Rwanda’s improvement in health has been far greater than Burundi’s. To understand how this divergence occurred, we studied trends in life expectancy following the periods of instability in both countries, as well as the health policies implemented after these conflicts. We used the World Bank’s World Development Indicators to assess trends in life expectancy in the two countries and then evaluated health policy reforms using Walt and Gilson’s framework. Following both countries’ implementation of health sector policies in 2005, we found a statistically significant increase in life expectancy in Rwanda after adjusting for GDP per capita (14.7 years, 95% CI: 11.4–18.0), relative to Burundi (4.6 years, 95% CI: 1.8–7.5). Strong public sector leadership, investments in health information systems, equity-driven policies, and the use of foreign aid to invest in local capacity helped Rwanda achieve greater health gains compared to Burundi.
  • Publication
    Quality of Antenatal Care Predicts Retention in Skilled Birth Attendance: A Multilevel Analysis of 28 African Countries
    (Springer Nature, 2017-05-17) Chukwuma, Adanna; Mbachu, Chinyere; Weze, Kelechi
    An effective continuum of maternal care ensures that mothers receive essential health packages from pre-pregnancy to delivery, and postnatally, reducing the risk of maternal death. However, across Africa, coverage of skilled birth attendance is lower than coverage for antenatal care, indicating mothers are not retained in the continuum between antenatal care and delivery. This paper explores predictors of retention of antenatal care clients in skilled birth attendance across Africa, including sociodemographic factors and quality of antenatal care received. Among ANC clients in the study sample, 66% received SBA. Adjusting for all demographic covariates and country indicators, the odds of retention in SBA were higher among ANC clients that had their blood pressure checked, received information about pregnancy complications, had blood tests conducted, received at least one tetanus injection, and had urine tests conducted. Higher quality of ANC predicts retention in SBA in Africa. Improving quality of skilled care received prenatally may increase client retention during delivery, reducing maternal mortality.
  • Publication
    Stakeholder Perspectives on e-Health Implementation in Armenia
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2018-06) Chukwuma, Adanna
    There is general recognition across stakeholders in Armenia that the e-health system can facilitate exchange of clinical and non-clinical information, transparency and accountability in service provision, and support for monitoring and evaluation. By tracking patient movement across health facilities, the e-health system links budgetary allocations to service use, enabling efficiency and supporting performance-based financing. However, scale-up of the e-health system has presented financial, technical, and organizational challenges that have negative implications for the sustainability of the system, efficient health care delivery, and the system’s ability to meet informational requirements for health decision-making. There are opportunities to iteratively adapt the e-health system in Armenia through a systematic assessment of the e-health system scale-up experience and through regular and structured interactions between the private operator of the e-health system, key stakeholders involved in the implementation of the e-health system, and policy makers that can facilitate the adoption of needed changes. The Armenian experience of implementing an integrated health information system provides useful lessons for improving the functionality of the current system and for adopting technologies to improve health systems more generally. To encourage facilities to continue to use the e-health system, there is an immediate need for financial support for the associated recurrent costs for maintaining the e-health system and technical assistance, including training and user manuals, to guide everyday use by medical practitioners.
  • Publication
    Invitations, Incentives, and Conditions: A Randomized Evaluation of Demand-Side Interventions for Health Screenings in Armenia
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2020-07) De Walque, Damien; Chukwuma, Adanna; Ayivi-Guedehoussou, Nono; Koshkakaryan, Marianna
    The study is a randomized controlled trial that investigates the impact of four demand-side interventions on health screening for diabetes and hypertension among Armenian adults ages 35-68 who had not been tested in the last 12 months. The interventions are personal invitations from a physician (intervention group 1), personal invitations with information about peer screening behavior (intervention group 2), a labeled but unconditional cash transfer in the form of a pharmacy voucher (intervention group 3), and a conditional cash transfer in the form of a pharmacy voucher (intervention group 4). Compared with the control group in which only 3.5 percent of participants went for both screenings during the study period, interventions 1 to 3 led to a significant increase in the screening rate of about 15 percentage points among participants. The highest intervention impact was measured among recipients in intervention group 4, whose uptake of screening on both tests increased by 31.2 percentage points. The levels of cost-effectiveness of intervention groups 1, 2, and 4 are similar while for intervention group 3 it is about twice more expensive per additional person screened.
  • Publication
    Disrupted Service Delivery? The Impact of Conflict on Antenatal Care Quality in Kenya
    (Frontiers Media, 2021-02-28) Chukwuma, Adanna; Ekhator-Mobayode, Uche Eseosa
    African countries facing conflict have higher levels of maternal mortality. Understanding the gaps in the utilization of high-quality maternal health care is essential to improving maternal survival in these states. Few studies have estimated the impact of conflict on the quality of health care. In this study, we estimated the impact of conflict on the quality of health care in Kenya, a country with multiple overlapping conflicts and significant disparities in maternal survival. Our study demonstrates the importance of designing maternal health policy based on the context-specific evidence on the mechanisms through which conflict affects health care. In Kenya, deterioration of equipment and infrastructure does not appear to be the main mechanism through which conflict has affected ANC quality. Further research should focus on better understanding the determinants of the gaps in process quality in conflict-affected settings, including provider motivation, competence, and incentives.
  • Publication
    Challenges and Opportunities for Purchasing High-Quality Health Care: Lessons from Armenia
    (Taylor and Francis, 2021-04-29) Chukwuma, Adanna; Gong, Estelle
    This paper examines how purchasing decisions in Armenia may contribute to barriers in using high-quality health care, particularly for non-communicable diseases, drawing on a review of the literature and key informant interviews. The paper adapts the strategic health purchasing progress framework, to examine how characteristics of purchasing, the health system, and the political, administrative, and macro-fiscal environment may have facilitated or hindered the attainment of service delivery goals. We conclude with six lessons for reforms aimed at improving the coverage and quality of health care in Armenia. First, increasing the political priority of access to quality of health care is a pre-requisite to advancing reforms to address these issues. Second, improved purchasing governance in Armenia will require a purchaser that can make decisions without political interference, with appropriate accountability mechanisms, improvements in technical capacity, and the routine use of data systems. Third, there is a need for the regulatory framework to ensure that revisions of the benefits package contribute to reducing the disease burden and improving access to care. Fourth, regulations governing quality-related criteria for provider selection should be enforced and include considerations for process quality. Fifth, payment incentives should be revised to encourage an increase in the supply of primary health care, reduce bypassing for hospital care, and improve the quality of services. Sixth, the potential of purchasing to improve service delivery will be dependent on increased pre-paid and pooled funds and better governance of the quality of care.
  • Publication
    Health Service Delivery and Political Trust in Nigeria
    (Elsevier, 2019-04) Chukwuma, Adanna; Croke, Kevin
    Do improvements in health service delivery affect trust in political leaders in Africa? Citizens expect their government to provide social services. Intuitively, improvements in service delivery should lead to higher levels of trust in and support for political leaders. However, in contexts where inadequate services are the norm, and where political support is linked to ethnic or religious affiliation, there may be weak linkages between improvements in service delivery and changes in trust in political leaders. To examine this question empirically, we take advantage of a national intervention that improved health service delivery in 500 primary health care facilities in Nigeria, to estimate the impact of residence within 10 km of one or more of the intervention facilities on trust in the president, local councils, the ruling party, and opposition parties. Using difference-in-difference models, we show that proximity to the intervention led to increases in trust in the president and the ruling party. By contrast, we find no evidence of increased trust in the local council or opposition parties. Our study also examines the role of ethnicity and religious affiliation in mediating the observed increases in trust in the president. While there is a large literature suggesting that both the targeting of interventions, and the response of citizens to interventions is often mediated by ethnic, geographic or religious identity, by contrast, we find no evidence that the intervention was targeted at the president's ethnic group, zone, or state of origin. Moreover, there is suggestive evidence that the intervention increased trust in the president more among those who did not share these markers of identity with the president. This highlights the possibility that broad-based efforts to improve health services can increase trust in political leaders even in settings where political attitudes are often thought to be mediated by group identity.
  • Publication
    Exploring Behavioral Competencies for Effective Medical Practice in Nigeria
    (Sage Publications, 2020-12-01) Chukwuma, Adanna; Agu, Ifunanya; Mbachu, Chinyere
    Clinical performance varies due to academic, clinical, and behavioral factors. However, in many countries, selection of medical professionals tends to focus on exclusively academic ability and clinical acumen. Appropriate selection processes for medical professionals should consider behavioral factors, which may vary across contexts. This study was conducted to identify behavioral competencies considered relevant for effective medical practice in Nigeria, by medical students and doctors, and compared with other contexts. This study is one of the few to examine the perspectives of medical students and physicians on behavioral competencies for effective medical practice in an African country. We found differences in the perspectives of medical physicians and students, and in the prioritized competencies across countries. Our study illustrates the need for careful consideration in identifying subject matter experts and in generalizing competencies across contexts. Future research in this field in Nigeria should examine effective ways of testing for key behavioral competencies among medical students and for residency programs. Also, investigating the perspectives of medical faculty and administrators on important competencies, and exploring the generalizability of these competencies across cultures in Nigeria should be considered.
  • Publication
    Invitations, Incentives, and Conditions: A Randomized Evaluation of Demand-Side Interventions for Health Screenings
    (Elsevier, 2022-03) de Walque, Damien; Chukwuma, Adanna
    This randomized controlled trial investigates the impact of four demand-side interventions on health screening for diabetes and hypertension among Armenian adults. The interventions are 1) personalized invitations from a physician, 2) personalized invitations with information about peer screening behavior, 3) personalized invitations with a labeled but unconditional financial incentive, and 4) personal invitations with a conditional financial incentive. Compared with the control group, interventions 1 to 3 led to a significant increase in the screening rate of about 15 percentage points for diabetes and hypertension. The highest impact was measured for intervention 4 leading to a 31.2 percentage point increase in both screenings.
  • Publication
    Provider Payment Reforms for Improved Primary Health Care in Romania
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2021-08) Chukwuma, Adanna; Chen, Dorothee; Gong, Estelle
    Romania faces high levels of amenable mortality reflecting, in part, the relatively low utilization rates of high-quality primary health care (PHC), particularly for non-communicable disease (NCD) prevention and treatment. Provider payment mechanisms do not reward the high-quality care provision and may incentivize bypassing of PHC for hospitals, exacerbating challenges presented by physical, financial, and social barriers to accessing essential care. This paper assesses provider payment mechanisms at the PHC level, by examining their design features and implementation arrangements, and exploring their implications for PHC performance in terms of access and quality of care. The authors conclude with policy recommendations to address the constraints identified. To increase the supply of preventative care and case management, the authors recommend that volume thresholds for fee-for-service payments reflect both the number of enrollees and physicians in a practice; laboratory tests required for case management be reduced in scope and their costs be reimbursed; and the law on health care reform be amended to enable the introduction of new payment mechanisms, such as performance-based payments. To expand the scope of PHC and strengthen care coordination with hospitals, periodic reviews by physician commissions should aim to expand the scope of PHC care in line with provisions in other European Union (EU) countries for ambulatory-care sensitive conditions; capitation payments should be adjusted for gender and historical service use to reduce incentive for over-referrals; and payment mechanisms that reward coordination of care, including bundled payments, should be introduced. To establish an enabling environment for provider payment reforms, health information systems should be strengthened by unifying diagnosis coding, establishing quality standards, and ensuring referral module functionality; payment reforms should be informed by extensive consultations with providers at all service delivery levels; and PHC spending should be increased to support higher reimbursement levels for providers and match expenditure levels in high-performing EU health systems.