Global Practice on Water, The World Bank
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Fields of Specialization
Impact evaluation, Applied microeconomics
Global Practice on Water, The World Bank
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Last updated June 26, 2023
George Joseph is a Senior Economist with the Water Global Practice of the World Bank, Washington, DC. His research interests are centered on development economics and behavioral and applied microeconomics. He received his PhD in economics from Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey, and an MA in economics from Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi, India
Publication Search Results
Now showing 1 - 8 of 8
Publication(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2019-06) Joseph, George ; Alam, Bushra Binte ; Shrestha, Anne ; Islam, Khairul ; Lahiri, Santanu ; Ayling, SophieAdequate water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) in health care facilities plays a critical role in ensuring improved health care utilization and reducing disease burden due to reinfection. WASH in health facilities is now gaining momentum with the new SDG targets that governments have vowed to meet. This goal calls for a baseline examination of existing WASH conditions in health facilities. Using data collected through a census of all community health clinics in Bangladesh, this paper presents an analysis of the state of WASH in Bangladesh's rural, public health facilities highlighting that the lack of functionality of WASH facilities is a widespread problem across the country. The paper also identifies priority areas for action when considering the prevalence of poverty and chronic undernutrition at the upazilla level.
Study of the Distributional Performance of Piped Water Consumption Subsidies in 10 Developing Countries(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2020-05) Abramovsky, Laura ; Andres, Luis ; Joseph, George ; Rud, Juan Pablo ; Sember, German ; Thibert, MichaelThis paper provides new evidence on how effectively piped water consumption subsidies are targeting poor households in 10 low- and middle-income countries around the world. The results suggest that, in these countries, existing tariff structures fall short of recovering the costs of service provision, and the resulting subsidies largely fail to achieve their goal of improving the accessibility and affordability of piped water for poor households. Instead, the majority of subsidies in all 10 countries are captured by the richest households. This is in part because the most vulnerable population segments typically face challenges in accessing and connecting to piped water services. The paper also reveals shortcomings in the design of the subsidies, which are conditional on poor households being connected to a piped network.
Publication(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2018-03) Andres, Luis ; Chellaraj, Gnanaraj ; Das Gupta, Basab ; Grabinsky, Jonathan ; Joseph, GeorgeThis paper utilizes information from the 2015 Nigeria National Water and Sanitation Survey to identify the extent and timing of the failure of water schemes in the country and the factors affecting it. Around 46 percent of all the water schemes in Nigeria are nonfunctional, and approximately 30 percent are likely to fail in the first year. The results indicate that during the first year of operation, factors that can be controlled in the design, implementation, and operational stages contribute to the failure of 61 percent of the water schemes. As water schemes age, their likelihood of failure is best predicted by factors that cannot be modified. The influence of operational factors, such as repairs and maintenance, decreases slightly over time.
Why Are So Many Water Points in Nigeria Non-Functional?: An Empirical Analysis of Contributing Factors(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2018-03) Andres, Luis ; Chellaraj, Gnanaraj ; Das Gupta, Basab ; Grabinsky, Jonathan ; Joseph, GeorgeThis paper utilizes information from the 2015 Nigeria National Water and Sanitation Survey to identify the extent, timing, as well as reasons for the failure of water points. The paper finds that more than 38 percent of all improved water points are nonfunctional. The results indicate that nearly 27 percent of the water points are likely to fail in the first year of construction, while nearly 40 percent are likely to fail in the long run (after 8-10 years). The paper considers the reasons behind these failures, looking at whether they can or cannot be controlled. During the first year, a water point's location -- the political region and underlying hydrogeology -- has the greatest impact on functionality. Other factors—specifically, those that can be controlled in the design, implementation, and operational stages -- also contribute significantly. As water points age, their likelihood of failure is best predicted by factors that cannot be modified, as well as by the technology used. The paper concludes that, to improve the sustainability of water points, much can be done at the design, implementation, and operational stages. Over time, technology upgrades are important.
Publication(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2019-02) Joseph, George ; Andres, Luis Alberto ; Chellaraj, Gnanaraj ; Grabinsky Zabludovsky, Jonathan ; Ayling, Sophie Charlotte Emi ; Hoo, Yi RongAccording to the 2015 Tanzania Water Point Mapping data, about 29 percent of all water points are non-functional, out of which 20 percent failed within the first year. This paper analyzes the various factors which impact water point failure and measures the relative contributions of these determinants. The results indicate that water points managed by village committees had a much higher likelihood of failure than those managed by private operators or water authority. Factors that cannot be modified such as hydrogeological factors play a major role in determining water points failure during the first year after installation. However, management type as well as the type of pump and technology matter considerably more in the short and medium term.
Publication(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2019-08-28) Andres, Luis A. ; Thibert, Michael ; Lombana Cordoba, Camilo ; Danilenko, Alexander V. ; Joseph, George ; Borja-Vega, ChristianThis report explores how scarce public resources can be used most effectively to achieve universal delivery of water supply and sanitation services. It analyzes the prevalence and performance of subsidies in the sector, then guide policymakers on improving subsidy design and implementation to improve their efficacy and efficiency in attaining their objectives.
Publication(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2018-02) Andres, Luis A. ; Bhatt, Samir ; Dasgupta, Basab ; Echenique, Juan A. ; Gething, Peter W. ; Grabinsky Zabludovsky, Jonathan ; Joseph, GeorgeThe paper presents the development and implementation of a geo-spatial model for mapping populations' access to specified types of water and sanitation services in Nigeria. The analysis uses geo-located, population-representative data from the National Water and Sanitation Survey 2015, along with relevant geo-spatial covariates. The model generates predictions for levels of access to seven indicators of water and sanitation services across Nigeria at a resolution of 1×1 square kilometers. The predictions promise to hone the targeting of policies meant to improve access to basic services in various regions of the country.
Publication(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2018-08) Arias-Granada, Yurani ; Haque, Sabrina S. ; Joseph, George ; Yanez-Pagans, MonicaUrban slum residents often have worse health outcomes compared with other urbanites and even their rural counterparts. This suggests that slum residents do not always benefit from the "urban advantage" of enjoying better access to health-promoting services. Limited access to water and sanitation services in slums could contribute to poor health of slum residents. In Bangladesh, these services generally are not delivered through formal utilities, but rather through well-functioning informal markets that are operated by middlemen and local providers. This paper analyzes a household survey to examine living conditions and quality of access to water and sanitation services in small-, medium-, and large-sized slums across Dhaka, Bangladesh. The analysis finds that access to water and sanitation services is overall quite high, but these services are subject to important quality issues related to safety, reliability, and liability. Although water access is nearly universal, water services are often interrupted or sometimes inaccessible. Sanitation is commonly shared, with the average ratio being 16 households to one facility. When considering fecal sludge management, the study finds that only 2 percent of these households have access to the Joint Monitoring Programme's conceptualization of "safely managed sanitation." The paper also finds strong evidence that water and sanitation services are operated by middlemen at various stages of service provision such as installation, management, and payment collection. The paper provides a snapshot of the differential quality in access to these services based on the monetary welfare level of the household. The snapshot shows that access to water and sanitation services is highly correlated to per capita household consumption levels, although quality remains low overall within slums. Overall, it is likely that the informality of water and sanitation services may exacerbate social and environmental risk factors for poor health and well-being.