Nayyar, Gaurav

Equitable Growth, Finance, and Institutions
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Economic growth, Structural transformation, India, Development Economics, International Economics
Equitable Growth, Finance, and Institutions
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Last updated January 31, 2023
Gaurav Nayyar is a Senior Economist in the Equitable Growth, Finance and Institutions Vice Presidency at the World Bank, where he joined as a Young Professional in 2013. Previously, he was an Economics Affairs Officer in the Economic Research Division of the World Trade Organization, where he co-led the World Trade Report 2013, Factors Shaping the Future of World Trade. Gaurav’s research interests lie primarily in the areas of economic growth, structural transformation, trade, industrialization, and firm productivity, and he has published in a variety of academic journals on these issues. His previous books include Trouble in the Making? The Future of Manufacturing-Led Development (with Mary Hallward-Driemeier), and The Service Sector in India’s Development (published by Cambridge University Press). Gaurav holds a D.Phil in Economics from the University of Oxford, where he was a Dorothy Hodgkin Scholar. His other alma maters include the London School of Economics and Political Science, the University of Cambridge, and St. Stephen’s College, University of Delhi.
Citations 4 Scopus

Publication Search Results

Now showing 1 - 6 of 6
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    Policies to Support Businesses through the COVID-19 Shock: A Firm-Level Perspective
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2021-01) Cirera, Xavier ; Cruz, Marcio ; Davies, Elwyn ; Grover, Arti ; Iacovone, Leonardo ; Lopez Cordova, Jose Ernesto ; Medvedev, Denis ; Okechukwu Maduko, Franklin ; Nayyar, Gaurav ; Reyes Ortega, Santiago ; Torres, Jesica
    Relying on a novel dataset covering more than 120,000 firms in 60 countries, this paper con-tributes to the debate about D policies to support businesses through the COVID-19 pandemic. While governments around the world have implemented a wide range of policy support measures, evidence on the reach of these policies, the alignment of measures with firm needs, and their targeting and effectiveness remains scarce. This paper provides the most comprehensive assessment to date of these issues, focusing primarily on the developing economies. It shows that policy reach has been limited, especially for the more vulnerable firms and countries, and identifies mismatches between policies provided and policies most sought. It also provides some indicative evidence regarding mistargeting of policies and their effectiveness in addressing liquidity constraints and preventing layoffs. This assessment provides some early guidance to policymakers on tailoring their COVID-19 business support packages and points to new directions in data and research efforts needed to guide policy responses to the current pandemic and future crises.
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    India's Services Sector Growth: The Impact of Services Trade on Non-tradable Services
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2022-06) Avdiu, Besart ; Bagavathinathan, Karan Singh ; Chaurey, Ritam ; Nayyar, Gaurav
    This paper examines the effect of tradable services growth on non-tradable services across Indian districts. The analysis uses a shift-share “Bartik-type” instrumental variable, which relies on changes in foreign demand shocks for tradable services, weighted by the initial district employment shares in tradable services. Using multiple rounds of the Indian Economic Censuses, the findings show that an increase in tradable services employment leads to an increase in non-tradable services employment and increases the number of firms in non-tradable services. The evidence suggests that this positive impact is due to an increase in consumer demand for local non-tradable services that results from the growth in tradable services employment, and not due to sectoral linkages between tradable and non-tradable services sectors. The employment impact is much larger for female workers compared to male workers, and for the number of female-owned firms relative to male-owned firms. Further, the employment impact is only significant for small non-tradable service firms.
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    Gearing Up for the Future of Manufacturing in Bangladesh
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2021-06-21) Gu, Yunfan ; Nayyar, Gaurav ; Sharma, Siddharth
    Labor-intensive, export-oriented manufacturing driven by the ready-made garments industry has transformed Bangladesh's economy. But with automation, changing trade patterns and servicification reducing the importance of wage costs globally, the creation of more sustainable jobs in the manufacturing sector now needs the upgradation of firms' capabilities and technology adoption. Drawing on the World Bank's "Bangladesh Firm-level Adoption of Technology Survey", this report shows that there is significant scope to improve the manufacturing sector's performance and future prospects by promoting the adoption of better technologies in firms. It discusses how Bangladesh can achieve this aim through policies that address informational barriers to the acquisition of capabilities in firms, leverage international connectivity for technology diffusion, and strengthen key markets and institutions that underpin firms investment in technology.
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    When Face-to-Face Interactions Become an Occupational Hazard: Jobs in the Time of COVID-19
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2020-05) Avdiu, Besart ; Nayyar, Gaurav
    There is a crisis of demand brewing around the globe as social distancing becomes the norm to counter the COVID-19 outbreak. So, which parts of the economy are most in the line of fire? Looking at jobs that can be done at home or that require a high degree of face-to-face interactions with consumers can capture complementary but distinct mechanisms to assess this vulnerability. This paper uses data on 900 job titles from the Occupational Information Network (O*NET) database for the United States to demonstrate that there is substantial heterogeneity in vulnerability across industries, income groups, and gender. First, industries vary in whether they emphasize face-to-face interactions and home-based work and the two do not always go hand-in-hand. Second, occupations that are less amenable to home-based work are largely concentrated among the lower wage deciles. Third, a larger share of women's employment is accounted for by occupations that are intensive in face-to-face interactions.
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    At Your Service?: The Promise of Services-Led Development
    (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2021-09-15) Nayyar, Gaurav ; Hallward-Driemeier, Mary ; Davies, Elwyn
    Throughout history, industrialization has been synonymous with development. However, the trend of premature deindustrialization and the spread of automation technologies associated with Industry 4.0 has raised concerns that the development model based on export-led manufacturing seen in East Asia will be harder for hitherto less industrialized countries to replicate in the future. Can services-led development be an alternative? Contrary to conventional wisdom, the features of manufacturing that were considered uniquely conducive for productivity growth - such as international trade, scale economies, inter-sectoral linkages, and innovation - are increasingly shared by the services sector. But services are not monolithic. The twin gains of productivity growth and large-scale job creation for relatively low-skilled workers are less likely to come together in any given services subsector. The promise of services-led development in the future will be strengthened to the extent that technological change reduces the trade-off between productivity and jobs, and growth opportunities in services with potential for high productivity do not depend on a manufacturing base. Considering technological change and linkages between sectors while differentiating across types of services, this book assesses the scope of a services-driven development model and policy directions that maximize its potential.
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    Europe 4.0: Addressing the Digital Dilemma
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2020-11-09) Hallward-Driemeier, Mary ; Nayyar, Gaurav ; Fengler, Wolfgang ; Aridi, Anwar ; Gill, Indermit ; Aridi, Anwar
    This report examines the underlying economics of different types of digital technologies. It highlights what the new drivers of change are, why the dynamics with this latest round of technological change may be different, and what the distributional impacts may be within and across countries. It then examines the evidence for how different digital technologies are – or are not – contributing to competitiveness and opportunities for small and young firms, and firms in less developed areas, and what can be done about it. Europe faces a digital dilemma. European firms are particularly strong in operational technologies such as smart robotics and 3D printing. While this helps Europe's competitiveness, it also widens the divide between large and small firms, and leading and lagging regions. On the other hand, digital technologies, such as transactional technologies or matching platforms, have the greatest potential for market inclusion and convergence, but this is where Europe remains less competitive. The report lays out how Europe 4.0 is attainable. The COVID-19 (coronavirus) pandemic has highlighted the importance of the data economy — and raised the risks if the digital dilemma is not addressed. This report provides a framework, evidence and recommendations on how governments can respond. Europe has the chance to attain a dynamic and inclusive technologically enhanced future, it should take that chance.