Dulal, Hari Bansha
Urban Development, Africa region
Author Name Variants
Fields of Specialization
Climate change; environment; urban development
Urban Development, Africa region
Externally Hosted Work
Last updated January 31, 2023
Hari Bansha Dulal received his doctorate in environmental science and public policy from George Mason University. He is currently a consultant for climate change and clean energy at The World Bank in Washington, D.C.
Publication Search Results
Now showing 1 - 4 of 4
Fiscal Policy Instruments for Reducing Congestion and Atmospheric Emissions in the Transport Sector : A Review(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2008-06) Timilsina, Govinda R. ; Dulal, Hari B.This paper reviews the literature on the fiscal policy instruments commonly used to reduce transport sector externalities. The findings show that congestion charges would reduce vehicle traffic by 9 to 12 percent and significantly improve environmental quality. The vehicle tax literature suggests that every 1 percent increase in vehicle taxes would reduce vehicle miles by 0.22 to 0.45 percent and CO2 emissions by 0.19 percent. The fuel tax is the most common fiscal policy instrument; however its primary objective is to raise government revenues rather than to reduce emissions and traffic congestion. Although subsidizing public transportation is a common practice, reducing emissions has not been the primary objective of such subsidies. Nevertheless, it is shown that transport sector emissions would be higher in the absence of both public transportation subsidies and fuel taxation. Subsidies are also the main policy tool for the promotion of clean fuels and vehicles. Although some studies are very critical of biofuel subsidies, the literature is mostly supportive of clean vehicle subsidies.
Publication(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2010-03) Dulal, Hari Bansha ; Brodnig, GernotAgriculture is one of the major sources of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions accounting for approximately 14 percent of total GHG emissions. However, unlike other sectors such as transport or energy, agriculture is potentially a significant carbon 'sink'. Moreover, because the majority of GHG emissions from agriculture originate in developing countries, early intervention could be highly cost-effective. This note examines the potential role of agriculture in climate change mitigation. It discusses: 1) the sector's current GHG emissions, 2) its potential to serve as a sink, 3) best management practices that can be adopted to mitigate climate change, and 4) social and institutional barriers to adopting agricultural mitigation measures, and ways to overcome them.
Publication(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2015-02) Awe, Yewande ; Nygard, Jostein ; Larssen, Steinar ; Lee, Heejoo ; Dulal, Hari ; Kanakia, RahulThis report specifically deals with air pollution, which was reported, by the World Health Organization (WHO), as the single largest environmental health risk globally in 2012 (WHO, 2014a). Air pollution from outdoor and household sources jointly account for more than 7 million deaths (3.7 million from ambient air pollution and 4.3 million from household air pollution). The following sections of this chapter present the objectives of, and key aspects of the institutional context for, this report followed by an examination of some of the major drivers of deteriorating ambient air quality in developing countries; air pollution sources and impacts; and the status of air quality management in developing countries. Chapter two presents the results of a desk-based portfolio review of World Bank projects that are relevant to reduction of air pollution. This is followed, in chapter three, by an examination of case studies of World Bank projects whose objectives include addressing ambient air pollution, highlighting good practices and lessons for future work of the Bank in supporting clients. Chapter four presents possible approaches for enhancing future Bank support in helping clients to improve air quality and reduce the associated adverse health outcomes. Chapter five presents overall conclusions and recommendations.
Publication( 2009-03-01) Timilsina, Govinda R. ; Dulal, Hari B.This study reviews regulatory instruments designed to reduce environmental externalities from the transport sector. The study finds that the main regulatory instruments used in practice are fuel economy standards, vehicle emission standards, and fuel quality standards. Although industrialized countries have introduced all three standards with strong enforcement mechanisms, most developing countries have yet to introduce fuel economy standards. The emission standards introduced by many developing countries to control local air pollutants follow either the European Union or United States standards. Fuel quality standards, particularly for gasoline and diesel, have been introduced in many countries mandating 2 to 10 percent blending of biofuels, 10 to 50 times reduction of sulfur from 1996 levels, and banning lead contents. Although inspection and maintenance programs are in place in both industrialized and developing countries to enforce regulatory standards, these programs have faced several challenges in developing countries due to a lack of resources. The study also highlights several factors affecting the selection of regulatory instruments, such as countries' environmental priorities and institutional capacities.