Dulal, Hari Bansha

Urban Development, Africa region
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Climate change; environment; urban development
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Urban Development, Africa region
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Last updated January 31, 2023
Hari Bansha Dulal received his doctorate in environmental science and public policy from George Mason University. He is currently a consultant for climate change and clean energy at The World Bank in Washington, D.C.
Citations 86 Scopus

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Now showing 1 - 6 of 6
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    Governing Climate Change Adaptation in Ganges Basin : Assessing Needs and Capacities
    (Taylor & Francis, 2014-01-02) Dulal, Hari
    The Ganges basin shared by India, Nepal, Bangladesh, and China is the most heavily populated river basin in the world. It sustains approximately 500 million people. Even though people living in the basin have coped with and adapted to change in climate for centuries, they are finding it increasingly difficult, as both the frequency and magnitude of climate-induced extreme weather events have increased over the years. Both market and non-market impacts of climate change are increasing, and increasing quite significantly. In 2007, floods resulting from monsoon rains killed over 2000 people and displaced more than 20 million people in Bangladesh, India, and Nepal. As traditional coping mechanisms are proving to be increasingly insufficient, improvement in climate change adaptation planning and practices in the basin is becoming increasingly urgent. This paper makes an attempt to assess the effectiveness of climate information system, infrastructure, and institutions, which are considered as three important pillars of successful climate change adaptation. The needs and capacities of agencies and institutions to observe, collect, disseminate climate information products and early warning, and existing physical and institutional structures’ robustness and flexibility in responding to climatic change and climate-induced extreme events are evaluated.
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    Fiscal Policy Instruments for Reducing Congestion and Atmospheric Emissions in the Transport Sector : A Review
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2008-06) Timilsina, Govinda R. ; Dulal, Hari B.
    This paper reviews the literature on the fiscal policy instruments commonly used to reduce transport sector externalities. The findings show that congestion charges would reduce vehicle traffic by 9 to 12 percent and significantly improve environmental quality. The vehicle tax literature suggests that every 1 percent increase in vehicle taxes would reduce vehicle miles by 0.22 to 0.45 percent and CO2 emissions by 0.19 percent. The fuel tax is the most common fiscal policy instrument; however its primary objective is to raise government revenues rather than to reduce emissions and traffic congestion. Although subsidizing public transportation is a common practice, reducing emissions has not been the primary objective of such subsidies. Nevertheless, it is shown that transport sector emissions would be higher in the absence of both public transportation subsidies and fuel taxation. Subsidies are also the main policy tool for the promotion of clean fuels and vehicles. Although some studies are very critical of biofuel subsidies, the literature is mostly supportive of clean vehicle subsidies.
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    Social and Institutional Barriers to Climate Change Mitigation in Agriculture
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2010-03) Dulal, Hari Bansha ; Brodnig, Gernot
    Agriculture is one of the major sources of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions accounting for approximately 14 percent of total GHG emissions. However, unlike other sectors such as transport or energy, agriculture is potentially a significant carbon 'sink'. Moreover, because the majority of GHG emissions from agriculture originate in developing countries, early intervention could be highly cost-effective. This note examines the potential role of agriculture in climate change mitigation. It discusses: 1) the sector's current GHG emissions, 2) its potential to serve as a sink, 3) best management practices that can be adopted to mitigate climate change, and 4) social and institutional barriers to adopting agricultural mitigation measures, and ways to overcome them.
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    Clean Air and Healthy Lungs : Enhancing the World Bank's Approach to Air Quality Management
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2015-02) Awe, Yewande ; Nygard, Jostein ; Larssen, Steinar ; Lee, Heejoo ; Dulal, Hari ; Kanakia, Rahul
    This report specifically deals with air pollution, which was reported, by the World Health Organization (WHO), as the single largest environmental health risk globally in 2012 (WHO, 2014a). Air pollution from outdoor and household sources jointly account for more than 7 million deaths (3.7 million from ambient air pollution and 4.3 million from household air pollution). The following sections of this chapter present the objectives of, and key aspects of the institutional context for, this report followed by an examination of some of the major drivers of deteriorating ambient air quality in developing countries; air pollution sources and impacts; and the status of air quality management in developing countries. Chapter two presents the results of a desk-based portfolio review of World Bank projects that are relevant to reduction of air pollution. This is followed, in chapter three, by an examination of case studies of World Bank projects whose objectives include addressing ambient air pollution, highlighting good practices and lessons for future work of the Bank in supporting clients. Chapter four presents possible approaches for enhancing future Bank support in helping clients to improve air quality and reduce the associated adverse health outcomes. Chapter five presents overall conclusions and recommendations.
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    Making Cities Resilient to Climate Change: Identifying ‘Win-Win’ Interventions
    (Taylor and Francis, 2016-04-09) Dulal, Hari Bansha
    Urbanization is truly a global phenomenon. Starting at 39% in 1980, the urbanization level rose to 52% in 2011. Ongoing rapid urbanization has led to increase in urban greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Urban climate change risks have also increased with more low-income urban dwellers living in climate sensitive locations. Despite increased emissions, including GHGs and heightened climate change vulnerability, climate mitigation and adaptation actions are rare in the cities of developing countries, often viewed as “low-priority" issues, if anything. Cities are overwhelmed with worsening congestion, air pollution, crime, waste management, and unemployment problems. Lack of resources and capacity constraints are other factors that discourage cities from embarking on climate change mitigation and adaptation pathways. Given the multitude of problems faced, there is simply no appetite for stand-alone urban climate change mitigation and adaptation policies and programs. Urban mitigation and adaptation goals will have to be achieved as co-benefits of interventions targeted at solving pressing urban problems and challenges given the ground realities at the moment. The paper identifies administratively simple urban interventions that can help cities solve some of their pressing service delivery and urban environmental problems, while simultaneously mitigating rising urban GHG emissions and vulnerability to climate change. The paper also identifies implementation barriers and presents barrier removal options in order to facilitate wider diffusion of these interventions.
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    A Review of Regulatory Instruments to Control Environmental Externalities from the Transport Sector
    ( 2009-03-01) Timilsina, Govinda R. ; Dulal, Hari B.
    This study reviews regulatory instruments designed to reduce environmental externalities from the transport sector. The study finds that the main regulatory instruments used in practice are fuel economy standards, vehicle emission standards, and fuel quality standards. Although industrialized countries have introduced all three standards with strong enforcement mechanisms, most developing countries have yet to introduce fuel economy standards. The emission standards introduced by many developing countries to control local air pollutants follow either the European Union or United States standards. Fuel quality standards, particularly for gasoline and diesel, have been introduced in many countries mandating 2 to 10 percent blending of biofuels, 10 to 50 times reduction of sulfur from 1996 levels, and banning lead contents. Although inspection and maintenance programs are in place in both industrialized and developing countries to enforce regulatory standards, these programs have faced several challenges in developing countries due to a lack of resources. The study also highlights several factors affecting the selection of regulatory instruments, such as countries' environmental priorities and institutional capacities.