Dulal, Hari Bansha

Urban Development, Africa region
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Climate change; environment; urban development
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Urban Development, Africa region
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Last updated January 31, 2023
Hari Bansha Dulal received his doctorate in environmental science and public policy from George Mason University. He is currently a consultant for climate change and clean energy at The World Bank in Washington, D.C.
Citations 86 Scopus

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Now showing 1 - 4 of 4
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    Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD) Projects : Lessons for Future Policy Design and Implementation
    (Taylor and Francis, 2012-01-24) Dulal, Hari Bansha ; Shah, Kalim U. ; Sapkota, Chandan
    In response to the pressing global challenges of climate change, initiatives under the auspices of ‘reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation’ (REDD) have been implemented in over 30 developing and least-developed countries since 2005. The initiatives cover nearly every significant and vulnerable forest ecosystem worldwide. In this study we review six representative initiatives, two each from Africa, Asia and Latin America. Strength, weakness, opportunity and threat analysis is done to evaluate each initiative's policy framework, design, implementation and results thus far. The main policy and project implementation factors that appear to lead to effective and successful REDD project outcomes include having clearly formulated project design; governance, land tenure rights and capacity; equity and transparency; indigenous peoples' rights and knowledge; local–international coordination; and enhancing local and institutional capacities. Based on these findings, we provide recommendations for future REDD policy action and project implementation to make it work for the poor and achieve its intended goals.
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    Urban Road Transportation Externalities : Costs and Choice of Policy Instruments
    (World Bank, 2011-07-02) Timilsina, Govinda R. ; Dulal, Hari B.
    Urban transportation externalities are a key development challenge. Based on the existing literature, the authors illustrate the magnitudes of various external costs, review response policies, and measure and discuss their selection, particularly focusing on the context of developing countries. They find that regulatory policy instruments aimed at reducing local air pollution have been introduced in most countries in the world. On the other hand, fiscal policy instruments aimed at reducing congestion or greenhouse gas emissions are limited mainly to industrialized economies. Although traditional fiscal instruments, such as fuel taxes and subsidies, are normally introduced for other purposes, they can also help to reduce externalities. Land-use or urban planning, and infrastructure investment, could also contribute to reducing externalities; but they are expensive and play a small role in already developed megacities. The main factors that influence the choice of policy instruments include economic efficiency, equity, country or city specific priority, and institutional capacity for implementation. Multiple policy options need to be used simultaneously to reduce effectively the different externalities arising from urban road transportation because most policy options are not mutually exclusive.
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    A Preliminary Study of Intimate Partner Violence Among Nepali Women in the United States
    ( 2009) Thapa-Oli, S. ; Dulal, H. B. ; Baba, Y.
    Although there is a growing number of studies on intimate partner violence ( IPV) in U. S. South Asian communities, the examination of IPV among Nepali women in the United States is still in the initial stage. The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of and vulnerabilities to IPV among 45 Nepali immigrant women residing in the New York metropolitan area. The findings demonstrated that 75.6% of women had been verbally insulted by their current partners, and 62.2% had to seek permission from their partners to go to their friends' or relatives' houses.
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    Regulatory Instruments to Control Environmental Externalities from the Transport Sector
    ( 2009) Timilsina, Govinda R. ; Dulal, Hari B.
    This study reviews regulatory instruments designed to reduce environmental externalities from the transport sector. We find that the main regulatory instruments used in practice are fuel economy standards, vehicle emission standards, and fuel quality standards. While industrialized countries have introduced all three standards with strong enforcement mechanisms, most developing countries have yet to introduce fuel economy standards. The emission standards introduced by many developing countries to control local air pollutants follow either the EU or U.S. standards. Fuel quality standards, particularly for gasoline and diesel, have been introduced in many countries mandating 2 to 10 percents blending of biofuels, 10 to 50 times reduction of sulfur from 1996 levels and banning lead contents. Although inspection and maintenance (I/M) programs are in place in both industrialized and developing countries to enforce regulatory standards, these programs have faced several challenges in developing countries due to a lack of resources. The study also highlights several factors affecting the selection of regulatory instruments, such as countries' environmental priorities and institutional capacities.