Dulal, Hari Bansha

Urban Development, Africa region
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Climate change; environment; urban development
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Urban Development, Africa region
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Last updated January 31, 2023
Hari Bansha Dulal received his doctorate in environmental science and public policy from George Mason University. He is currently a consultant for climate change and clean energy at The World Bank in Washington, D.C.
Citations 18 Scopus

Publication Search Results

Now showing 1 - 7 of 7
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    A Review of Regulatory Instruments to Control Environmental Externalities from the Transport Sector
    ( 2009-03-01) Timilsina, Govinda R. ; Dulal, Hari B.
    This study reviews regulatory instruments designed to reduce environmental externalities from the transport sector. The study finds that the main regulatory instruments used in practice are fuel economy standards, vehicle emission standards, and fuel quality standards. Although industrialized countries have introduced all three standards with strong enforcement mechanisms, most developing countries have yet to introduce fuel economy standards. The emission standards introduced by many developing countries to control local air pollutants follow either the European Union or United States standards. Fuel quality standards, particularly for gasoline and diesel, have been introduced in many countries mandating 2 to 10 percent blending of biofuels, 10 to 50 times reduction of sulfur from 1996 levels, and banning lead contents. Although inspection and maintenance programs are in place in both industrialized and developing countries to enforce regulatory standards, these programs have faced several challenges in developing countries due to a lack of resources. The study also highlights several factors affecting the selection of regulatory instruments, such as countries' environmental priorities and institutional capacities.
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    Deforestation Trends in the Congo Basin : Logging
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2013-04) Doetinchem, Nina ; Megevand, Carole ; Braune, Loic ; Dulal, Hari
    The Congo Basin has the largest forest cover on the African continent. Of the 400 million hectares that the Basin comprises, about 200 million of them are covered by forest, with 90 percent being tropical dense forests. The Congo Basin's logging sector has a dualistic configuration. It boasts a highly visible formal sector that is export oriented and dominated by large industrial groups with foreign capital and an informal sector that has long been underestimated and overlooked. This report is one of a series of reports prepared during a two-year attempt to analyze and better understand deforestation dynamics in the Basin. It presents findings related to the logging sector and its potential impact on forest cover, and it is based on an in-depth analysis of the sector. The paper's structure is as follows: first chapter gives an overview of the logging sector both formal and informal in the six countries and its importance in terms of employment and revenues; second chapter is the analyzes and impacts of logging activities on forest cover; and final chapter presents recommendations to foster sustainable logging activities with a particular focus on the informal sector and reduce potential adverse impact on natural forests.
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    Deforestation Trends in the Congo Basin : Agriculture
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2013-04) Hourticq, Joel ; Megevand, Carole ; Tollens, Eric ; Wehkamp, Johanna ; Dulal, Hari
    The Congo Basin represents 70 percent of the African continent's forest cover and constitutes a large portion of Africa's biodiversity. Agricultural development is a central lever to help people out of poverty, as well as a key driver of deforestation. Forest-friendly agricultural development is a challenge for the region. This report describes some ways forest-friendly agricultural development can materialize in the Congo Basin. It is one of a series of reports prepared during a two-year attempt to analyze and better understand deforestation dynamics in the Basin. The report presents findings related to the agricultural sector in the Congo Basin and its potential impact on forest cover. It is based on an in-depth analysis of the sector, from previous trends through future prospects. It builds on results derived from a modeling exercise conducted by the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA) that scrutinized national, regional, and international trends in agricultural sectors and trade, and their impacts on Congo Basin forests. The structure of the report is as follows: chapter one gives an overview of the agricultural sector in the six countries, including an analysis of the sector's impact so far on forest cover; chapter two describes the prospects for development of agriculture in the near future and the potential impacts on forest under a business-as usual scenario; and chapter three identifies potential key levers in agricultural policy that can enable forest-friendly agriculture.
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    Deforestation Trends in the Congo Basin : Transport
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2013-04) Megevand, Carole ; Dulal, Hari ; Braune, Loic ; Wekhamp, Johanna
    The Congo Basin is among the most poorly served areas in terms of transport infrastructure in the world, and it faces a challenging environment with dense tropical forests crisscrossed by numerous rivers that require construction of numerous bridges. Given such complexities, constructing transport infrastructure as well as properly maintaining it is certainly a key challenge for the Congo Basin countries. Recent studies indicate that investment required per kilometer of new roads is substantially higher than in other regions of Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) and the same applies for maintenance. The physical capital of transport infrastructure is deteriorated in the Congo Basin. The ratio of classify roads in good and fair conditions range from 25 percent in Republic of Congo to 68 percent in the Central African Republic, which is globally lower than the average for low-income countries (LICs) and resource-rich countries. Other transportation assets (railways and river system) are also limited: the railway network is essentially a legacy of the colonial era and mainly used for mineral transportation, while the river system is basically only marginal.
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    Social and Institutional Barriers to Climate Change Mitigation in Agriculture
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2010-03) Dulal, Hari Bansha ; Brodnig, Gernot
    Agriculture is one of the major sources of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions accounting for approximately 14 percent of total GHG emissions. However, unlike other sectors such as transport or energy, agriculture is potentially a significant carbon 'sink'. Moreover, because the majority of GHG emissions from agriculture originate in developing countries, early intervention could be highly cost-effective. This note examines the potential role of agriculture in climate change mitigation. It discusses: 1) the sector's current GHG emissions, 2) its potential to serve as a sink, 3) best management practices that can be adopted to mitigate climate change, and 4) social and institutional barriers to adopting agricultural mitigation measures, and ways to overcome them.
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    Fiscal Policy Instruments for Reducing Congestion and Atmospheric Emissions in the Transport Sector : A Review
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2008-06) Timilsina, Govinda R. ; Dulal, Hari B.
    This paper reviews the literature on the fiscal policy instruments commonly used to reduce transport sector externalities. The findings show that congestion charges would reduce vehicle traffic by 9 to 12 percent and significantly improve environmental quality. The vehicle tax literature suggests that every 1 percent increase in vehicle taxes would reduce vehicle miles by 0.22 to 0.45 percent and CO2 emissions by 0.19 percent. The fuel tax is the most common fiscal policy instrument; however its primary objective is to raise government revenues rather than to reduce emissions and traffic congestion. Although subsidizing public transportation is a common practice, reducing emissions has not been the primary objective of such subsidies. Nevertheless, it is shown that transport sector emissions would be higher in the absence of both public transportation subsidies and fuel taxation. Subsidies are also the main policy tool for the promotion of clean fuels and vehicles. Although some studies are very critical of biofuel subsidies, the literature is mostly supportive of clean vehicle subsidies.
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    Clean Air and Healthy Lungs : Enhancing the World Bank's Approach to Air Quality Management
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2015-02) Awe, Yewande ; Nygard, Jostein ; Larssen, Steinar ; Lee, Heejoo ; Dulal, Hari ; Kanakia, Rahul
    This report specifically deals with air pollution, which was reported, by the World Health Organization (WHO), as the single largest environmental health risk globally in 2012 (WHO, 2014a). Air pollution from outdoor and household sources jointly account for more than 7 million deaths (3.7 million from ambient air pollution and 4.3 million from household air pollution). The following sections of this chapter present the objectives of, and key aspects of the institutional context for, this report followed by an examination of some of the major drivers of deteriorating ambient air quality in developing countries; air pollution sources and impacts; and the status of air quality management in developing countries. Chapter two presents the results of a desk-based portfolio review of World Bank projects that are relevant to reduction of air pollution. This is followed, in chapter three, by an examination of case studies of World Bank projects whose objectives include addressing ambient air pollution, highlighting good practices and lessons for future work of the Bank in supporting clients. Chapter four presents possible approaches for enhancing future Bank support in helping clients to improve air quality and reduce the associated adverse health outcomes. Chapter five presents overall conclusions and recommendations.