Gragnolati, Michele

Health, Nutrition and Population
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Demography, Health economics, Population studies, Aging, Development economics
Health, Nutrition and Population
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Last updated January 31, 2023
Michele Gragnolati currently serves as the Manager for Strategy, Operations and Global Engagement in the Health, Nutrition and Population Global Practice. He joined the World Bank as a Young Professional in 1998 and since 2000, he served first as an economist with the health sector in Latin America and South Asia, and later as program leader for Human Development for the Western Balkans, Brazil, and Argentina, Paraguay and Uruguay. His last position was as Global Lead for Population and Development and he worked mostly on issues related to high fertility and rapid population growth in Sub-Saharan Africa. Before coming back to HQ in Washington, DC, Michele was based in Sarajevo, Brasilia and Buenos Aires. Michele has published on different topics, including methodological and statistical demography, poverty during the East Asia financial crisis, malnutrition in Central America and India, the impact of health expenditures on poverty in former Yugoslavia, the economics of demographic change in Africa and the socioeconomic implications of population aging in Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay. Economist graduated from Luigi Bocconi Commercial University (Italy), Gragnolati has also a Master’s Degree in Population and Development from the London School of Economics (Great Britain) and a Ph.D. in Demography from the University of Princeton (USA). Michele speaks Italian, English, Spanish, French and Portuguese.
Citations 69 Scopus

Publication Search Results

Now showing 1 - 4 of 4
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    The Impoverishing Effect of Adverse Health Events : Evidence from the Western Balkans
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2007-12) Mendola, Mariapia ; Bredenkamp, Caryn ; Gragnolati, Michele
    This paper investigates the extent to which the health systems of the Western Balkans (Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, Serbia, and Kosovo) have succeeded in providing financial protection against adverse health events. The authors examine disparities in health status, healthcare utilization, and out-of-pocket payments for healthcare (including informal payments), and explore the impact of healthcare expenditures on household economic status and poverty. Methodologies include (i) generating a descriptive assessment of health and healthcare disparities across socioeconomic groups, (ii) measuring the incidence and intensity of catastrophic healthcare payments, (iii) examining the effect of out-of-pocket payments on poverty headcount and poverty gap measures, and (iv) running sets of country-specific probit regressions to model the relationship between health status, healthcare utilization, and poverty. On balance, the findings show that the impact of health expenditures on household economic wellbeing and poverty is most severe in Albania and Kosovo, while Montenegro is striking for the financial protection that the health system seems to provide. Data are drawn from Living Standards and Measurement Surveys.
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    Health and Poverty in Guatemala
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2003-01) Gragnolati, Michele ; Marini, Alessandra
    Unlike many other countries in Latin America, Guatemala is only at the beginning of the demographic, and epidemiological transition. The population is young, is growing rapidly, and is still primarily rural. Guatemala is among the worst performers in terms of health outcomes in Latin America, with one of the highest infant mortality rates, and one of the lowest life expectancies at birth. Major causes of death in Guatemala still include treatable, and communicable diseases, such as diarrhea, pneumonia, cholera, malnutrition, and tuberculosis. A significant share of Guatemalans lack access to health care services. A combination of both supply- and demand-side constraints limit the ability of households to seek health care services in Guatemala, with supply-side constraints playing a more dominant role in rural areas than urban. Some progress has been made in reforming the health sector. Important steps have been taken on the institutional side, with health being one of the pilot ministries to decentralize financial management under the Integrated System for Health Care (SIAS program). Public spending has shifted toward preventive care, which is essential for treating the health problems faced by the poor. Despite these efforts, spending and health outcomes has not improved significantly. In addition, public spending on health is not well targeted. Overall, public health spending benefits the highest quintiles disproportionately, By type of facility, public spending on hospitals is by far the more regressive.
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    Twenty Years of Health System Reform in Brazil : An Assessment of the Sistema Único de Saúde
    (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2013-06-13) Gragnolati, Michele ; Lindelow, Magnus ; Couttolenc, Bernard
    It has been more than 20 years since Brazil's 1988 Constitution formally established the Unified Health System (Sistema Unico de Saude, SUS). Building on reforms that started in the 1980s, the SUS represented a significant break with the past, establishing health care as a fundamental right and duty of the state and initiating a process of fundamentally transforming Brazil's health system to achieve this goal. This report aims to answer two main questions. First is have the SUS reforms transformed the health system as envisaged 20 years ago? Second, have the reforms led to improvements with regard to access to services, financial protection, and health outcomes? In addressing these questions, the report revisits ground covered in previous assessments, but also brings to bear additional or more recent data and places Brazil's health system in an international context. The report shows that the health system reforms can be credited with significant achievements. The report points to some promising directions for health system reforms that will allow Brazil to continue building on the achievements made to date. Although it is possible to reach some broad conclusions, there are many gaps and caveats in the story. A secondary aim of the report is to consider how some of these gaps can be filled through improved monitoring of health system performance and future research. The introduction presents a short review of the history of the SUS, describes the core principles that underpinned the reform, and offers a brief description of the evaluation framework used in the report. Chapter two presents findings on the extent to which the SUS reforms have transformed the health system, focusing on delivery, financing, and governance. Chapter three asks whether the reforms have resulted in improved outcomes with regard to access to services, financial protection, quality, health outcomes, and efficiency. The concluding chapter presents the main findings of the study, discusses some policy directions for addressing the current shortcomings, and identifies areas for further research.
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    Enhancing Efficiency and Equity : Challenges and Reform Opportunities Facing Health and Pension Systems in the Western Balkans
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2008-09) Bredenkamp, Caryn ; Gragnolati, Michele ; Ramljak, Vedad ; Bredenkamp, Caryn ; Gragnolati, Michele ; Ramljak, Vedad
    This collection of papers explores the major challenges to the sustainability of health and pension system financing in the countries of the Western Balkans - Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Montenegro, Serbia, and the province of Kosovo. It focuses on how the incentives created by the different elements of the financing arrangements affect the behavior of providers and individuals, and the resulting inefficiencies in revenue collection and expenditure containment. The volume commences with an analysis of healthcare financing, exploring patterns of healthcare expenditure, and examining the key drivers of current healthcare expenditure and the most significant barriers to revenue generation. Subsequent chapters give special attention to provider payment mechanisms and the pharmaceutical sector. Equity considerations are highlighted in a chapter that explores the protection that is offered against the financial impact of health expenditures. With respect to the pension sector, the volume provides an overview of national pension systems and outlines the main challenges to achieving a sustainable balance between pension benefits and costs. The analyses of the health and pension reform process are placed within the context of the labor market challenges in the sub-region, especially as they relate to the ability to raise revenue for health and pensions through payroll contributions. All chapters conclude by identifying some reforms that countries in the sub-region could consider in order to enhance the efficiency and sustainability of their systems. Data are drawn from international databases, country institutions, and household surveys.