Education Global Practice
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Economics of education
Education Global Practice
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Last updated September 25, 2023
Shinsaku Nomura is a Senior Economist at the Education Global Practice in the World Bank. He has worked in countries in Middle East and North Africa, Sub-Saharan Africa, and South Asia regions. In South Asia, he has managed projects of basic and secondary education, early childhood education, and skills development in Pakistan, Bangladesh and India. He has also led analytical projects such as big data labor market analytics, learning assessments, impact evaluations, and economic and financial analyses. He received a PhD in Economics from the Graduate School of International Cooperation Studies, Kobe University, Japan.
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Now showing 1 - 5 of 5
Impacts of COVID-19 on Labor Markets and Household Well-Being in Pakistan: Evidence From an Online Job Platform(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2021-02) Tas, Emcet O. ; Ahmed, Tanima ; Matsuda, Norihiko ; Nomura, ShinsakuThis brief uses the administrative database of Pakistan’s largest online job platform and an online COVID-19 survey to examine the gender impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on labor markets and other well-being indicators. The analysis shows that the pandemic led to an unprecedented level of economic insecurity, resulting in widespread job loss, business closures, slowdown in business activity, and reduced working hours. The sectors where women are more likely to be employed, such as education and health, were more severely affected, yet the post-pandemic recovery was faster for males. The pandemic has also led to a disproportionate increase in women’s unpaid care work, as well as increasing their reported rates of stress, anxiety and exposure to violence. These findings suggest that impacts resulting from COVID-19 might lead to further declines in women’s participation in the economy in Pakistan, where women’s labor force participation is already among the world’s lowest.
Publication(Washington, DC: World Bank, 2020-02-19) Beteille, Tara ; Tognatta, Namrata ; Riboud, Michelle ; Nomura, Shinsaku ; Ghorpade, YashodhanCountries that have sustained rapid growth over decades have typically had a strong public commitment to expanding education as well as to improving learning outcomes. South Asian countries have made considerable progress in expanding access to primary and secondary schooling, with countries having achieved near-universal enrollment of the primary-school-age cohort (ages 6–11), except for Afghanistan and Pakistan. Secondary enrollment shows an upward trend as well. Beyond school, many more people have access to skill-improving opportunities and higher education today. Although governments have consistently pursued policies to expand access, a prominent feature of the region has been the role played by non-state actors—private nonprofit and for-profit entities—in expanding access at every level of education. Though learning levels remain low, countries in the region have shown a strong commitment to improving learning. All countries in South Asia have taken the first step, which is to assess learning outcomes regularly. Since 2010, there has been a rapid increase in the number of large-scale student learning assessments conducted in the region. But to use the findings of these assessments to improve schooling, countries must build their capacity to design assessments and analyze and use findings to inform policy.
Embracing Diversity and Inclusion in Indonesian Schools: Challenges and Policy Options for the Future of Inclusive Education(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2021-10-01) Hata, Anna ; Yuwono, Joko ; Purwana, Ruwiyati ; Nomura, ShinsakuToday, children with disabilities continue to be one of the most disadvantaged social groups and experience barriers to access and full participation in education in Indonesia. This policy note reviews the current status of Inclusive Education (IE) in Indonesia with dedicated attention to children with disabilities, focusing on school facilities and environment, teacher competency, and governance and service delivery. This study used focus group discussions to understand stakeholder perspectives in the implementation of IE, in addition to an extensive review of policy frameworks and IE practices in Indonesia and international good practices. This policy note finds that while the government has made progress on establishing policy framework for IE, the implementation of IE faces significant challenges. IE has not been fully mainstreamed into the education system due to limited legal and financial responsibilities and coordination at national, local and school levels. There is a strong need for improved accessibility and quality of inclusive schools, teacher and staff training, and increased administrative capacity. Limited cross-sectoral collaboration can prevent children with disabilities from appropriate learning and smooth school transitions, but this issue could have been exacerbated during the COVID-19 (coronavirus). This policy note provides policy recommendations in three strategic areas including access and equity of IE, quality of teaching and learning, and improved governance and ecosystem of service delivery. It is indispensable to ensure equitable access to inclusive schools in every sub-district/city in every education level. Teacher training and support mechanisms in IE is needed for all teachers, thus providing an opportunity to understand what inclusion is. Improved coordination, budget allocation, capacity building should happen across different levels of administration, providing better opportunities for children with disabilities.
Revealing How Indonesia’s Subnational Governments Spend Their Money on Education: Indonesia Subnational Education Public Expenditure Review 2020(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2020-11-16) Afkar, Rythia ; Luque, Javier ; Nomura, Shinsaku ; Marshall, Jeffery ; Afkar, RythiaIndonesia’s most recent amendment to its decentralization legislation transferred a far greater role in education management and service delivery to subnational governments. However, little information has been made available on how subnational governments conduct the planning, allocation, and execution of their education budgets—a key driver of increased human capital development. This study aims to fill this essential information gap by assessing the activities implemented by subnational governments as they fulfill their mandate in the education sector. Data collected from January to June 2019 in a survey of 27 districts and cities spread over eight provinces, as well as an analysis of national spending data.
Improving Toilet Hygiene and Handwashing Practices During and Post-COVID-19 Pandemic in Indonesian Schools(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2021-06) Afkar, Rythia ; Kumala, Citra ; Nomura, Shinsaku ; Afkar, RythiaThis policy note examines a rapid situation analysis of water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) facilities in Indonesian schools using quantitative and qualitative data, including a review of relevant regulations. It discusses policy implications related to the COVID-19 (coronavirus) pandemic response and its implications for achieving universal access to basic WASH facilities in schools by 2030, under the Sustainable Development Goals. It is found that 8 percent of MoECRT schools and 20 percent of MoRA primary schools have no functional toilets for students. The average number of toilets, 58 students to 1 toilet in primary schools, is not up to the international standards of 25:1 ratio. Twenty-two percent of MoECRT schools have no access to water and 47 percent reported no soap nor running water. The policy note also identifies 4 areas of policy gaps and corresponding recommendations to respond to the current situation and its causes.