Person: Aslam, Ghazia
Global Partnership for Social Accountability
Author Name Variants
Fields of Specialization
Local governance, Citizen participation, Social movements
Global Partnership for Social Accountability
Externally Hosted Work
Last updated: January 31, 2023
Ghazia Aslam is currently with the Global Partnership for Social Accountability at the World Bank and a Policy Fellow at the School of Public Policy, George Mason University. She has also previously worked with Social Development Department and Development Economics Research Group at the World Bank. She held a Visiting Faculty position at Economics Department, Lahore University of Management Sciences where she taught Constitutional Political Economy. She received her Ph.D. in Public Policy from George Mason University in 2011 and Masters in Economics from Lahore University of Management Science in 2004. Her main research interests include local governance, citizen participation, social movements, political transitions, and theories of dictatorships.
Publication Search Results
Now showing 1 - 4 of 4
PublicationSocietal Dynamics and Fragility : Engaging Societies in Responding to Fragile Situations(Washington, DC: World Bank, 2013-01) Marc, Alexandre; Willman, Alys; Aslam, GhaziaThe objective of the study reported in this book was to understand how societal dynamics can be mobilized toward a convergence across groups in society and thus toward greater social cohesion overall. The team began with an extensive consultation phase to identify some key societal dynamics that seemed important in understanding fragility. The German Development Cooperation (GIZ) was a key partner in the study, providing support to the analytical phase in the form of a background paper, and technical advice throughout the preparation of the report. The team continued to consult with these experts throughout the fieldwork and the writing of the book. This book reports a study about societal relationships in fragile situations. Drawing on relevant literature and fieldwork in five countries, it suggests that fragility, violent conflict, and state failure are functions not only of state inability or unwillingness to perform core tasks, but also of dysfunctional relationships in society that do not permit a state to be formed or sustained. The present chapter has introduced the problem of fragility and suggested that seeing fragility as a problem of relationships in society can lead to more effective interventions in fragile situations. Chapter two turns to a key area of societal relations, the state society relationship in fragile situations. Chapter three begins a conversation about social cohesion in fragile situations. It suggests a critical element of social cohesion: a convergence across groups in society. Chapter four discusses how perceptions of injustice across groups can deepen divisions and hinder coexistence and collective action. Many times such perceptions can be even more influential than measurable differences across groups (such as income inequality) in fomenting resentment and division. Chapter five then takes up the issue of interactions between institutions in fragile situations. It is suggested that social cohesion contributes to more constructive interactions among institutions, increasing their capacity to realize development goals. Chapter six shifts the focus to certain relationships in society that are particularly important for social cohesion. Chapter seven describes an overall approach to policy and programming, including how to conduct research and develop knowledge from this perspective. Chapter eight offers specific orientations for adapting existing tools and instruments to address the societal bases of fragility. PublicationHow-to Note : A Framework for the Assessment of Political Decentralization(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2010-02) Gurkan, Asli; Yilmaz, Serdar; Aslam, GhaziaPolitical decentralization is the primary mechanism through which citizen preferences are represented in the decision making, and is therefore essential to an effective system of decentralization. The purpose of this note is to elucidate components of a well-designed political decentralization system and is aimed to assist task teams and stakeholders to evaluate political decentralization effort in any given country. There are two main components of political decentralization system: a) discretion allowed to the local government to perform fundamental functions that allow them to represent the preferences of the citizens in decision making process; and b) mechanisms that hold the local government accountable for appropriate use of this discretion. PublicationOpening the Black Box: The Contextual Drivers of Social Accountability(Washington, DC: World Bank, 2015-04-14) Grandvoinnet, Helene; Aslam, Ghazia; Raha, ShomikhoThis publication fills an important knowledge gap by providing guidance on how to assess contextual drivers of social accountability effectiveness. It aims to strategically support citizen engagement at the country level and for a specific issue or problem. The report proposes a novel framing of social accountability as the interplay of constitutive elements: citizen action and state action, supported by three enabling levers: civic mobilization, interface and information. For each of these constitutive elements, the report identifies 'drivers' of contextual effectiveness which take into account a broad range of contextual factors (e.g., social, political and intervention-based, including information and communication technologies). Opening the Black Box offers detailed guidance on how to assess each driver. It also applies the framework at two levels. At the country level, the report looks at 'archetypes' of challenging country contexts, such as regimes with no formal space or full support for citizen-state engagement and fragile and conflict-affected situations. The report also illustrates the use of the framework to analyze specific social accountability interventions through four case studies: Sierra Leone, Pakistan, Yemen, and the Kyrgyz Republic. PublicationHow to Note : A Framework for the Assessment of Fiscal Decentralization System(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2010-02) Yilmaz, Serdar; Aslam, GhaziaFiscal decentralization provides the link between incentives for better performance of the local government and the elected support from the citizens and is, therefore, essential for an effective system of decentralization. The purpose of this note is to elucidate components of a well-designed fiscal decentralized system and is aimed to assist task teams and stakeholders to evaluate fiscal decentralization effort in any given country. There are two main components of fiscal decentralization system: a) discretion of the local government to make decision on fiscal matters (including revenue assignment for local goods, revenue generation, transfer of funds through a well-designed transfer system, and utilization of funds); and b) accountability including mechanisms that hold local government officials to other elected and non-elected officials and social accountability that allows direct monitoring of the local government officials by the citizens.