Sector/Thematic Studies

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Economic and Sectoral Work are original analytic reports authored by the World Bank and intended to influence programs and policy in client countries. They convey Bank-endorsed recommendations and represent the formal opinion of a World Bank unit on the topic. This set includes the sectoral and thematic studies which are not Core Diagnostic Studies. Other analytic and advisory activities (AAA), including technical assistance studies, are included in these sectoral/thematic collections.

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Now showing 1 - 10 of 117
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    Valuing Green Infrastructure: A Case Study of the Vakhsh River Basin, Tajikistan
    (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2023-09-14) World Bank
    This report outlines the main results of a study conducted to assess the potential role of landscape restoration/nature-based solutions/green infrastructure in the Vakhsh River Basin, Tajikistan, to reduce the impacts of soil erosion on the hydropower cascade, increase agricultural productivity, improve livelihoods, and inform about investment opportunities. This assessment finds sediment sources and loadings in the Vakhsh River Basin, considers the potential correlation between soil erosion and sedimentation in hydropower reservoirs, proposes possible and cost-effective landscape restoration measures, and estimates the value of ecosystem services provided. The study also presents recommendations for implementing the proposed interventions for the Vakhsh River Basin and for scaling up to other degraded areas throughout the country.
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    Air Quality Management in Tajikistan
    (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2023-08-22) World Bank
    The Air Quality Management (AQM) system in Tajikistan needs strengthening in its key policy and institutional as well as technical aspects to reduce health impacts of air pollution in the most polluted airsheds (Dushanbe and other urban centers). The World Bank's first engagement to strengthen Tajikistan's AQM aims to develop a better understanding of the priorities and needs in addressing air pollution and to support the government of Tajikistan in identifying key air pollution reductionmeasures. This summary report and the attached presentation detail the outcomes of Tajikistan's first AQM study, which is envisioned to continue. The study provides recommendations for all components of the AQM framework based on an analysis of the current status and gaps. It provides: 1) air quality (AQ) monitoring and population exposure assessment, 2) source attribution, 3) emissions-reduction interventions, and 4) recommendations to strengthen AQM Policies. The study prioritizes fine dust particles (PM2.5) due to their significant health impacts.
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    Making the European Green Deal Work for People: The Role of Human Development in the Green Transition
    (Washington, DC: World Bank Group, 2023-04-24) Sanchez-Reaza, Javier ; Ambasz, Diego ; Djukic, Predrag
    Climate change is the single most important existential threat of our times. Mounting average global temperature contributes to rising sea levels, more frequent extreme weather events, deteriorating biodiversity, and shifts in the sustainability of agriculture and aquaculture. The European Green Deal (EGD) is the response of the European Union (EU) to the climate challenge. It will establish regulations and incentives to nudge European society toward a more sustainable economy. To achieve these ambitious goals the EGD combines a wide range of regulations, policies, and intervention. But a green transition is only possible with an enabling human transition, and only with the proper human development (social) policies to support this transition. This report identifies the human development (HD) policies needed to enable the green transition in Europe.
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    Green Growth in North Macedonia‘s Agriculture Sector
    (Washington, DC, 2023-03-23) World Bank
    This report focuses on the agri-food sector in North Macedonia and investigates the potential and necessary actions for adopting a green growth trajectory. Agri-food is a key sector in need of transformation to achieve green growth in the country. The sector has great economic importance, and it is vulnerable to climate change and other environmental risks, which will compound current sector inefficiencies, including declining competitiveness. This report aims to assess: (i) the actions needed to re-focus agricultural support priorities in a manner that reflects green growth ambitions; (ii) policy financing implications; and (iii) the availability and capacity of effective policy implementation mechanisms. Finally, the potential impacts of greening agriculture support on farm efficiency are assessed and discussed.
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    Performance Assessment of Serbia’s Environmental and Climate Institutions: Focus on Addressing Energy-Sector Air Pollution and Greenhouse Gas Emissions
    (Washington, DC, 2022-11) World Bank
    Policy credibility and effectiveness and strong institutional capacities are essential to achieving a green and just transition in Serbia. This assessment focuses on the performance of institutions at both the national and subnational levels, and is aimed at addressing Serbia’s air pollution and climate change mitigation challenges to prepare these institutions for the transition to a low-carbon and green economy. In this assessment, the term ‘institutions’ refers to public institutions. Their performance is analyzed in several ways; including by assessing the overall institutional set-up, related capacities, gaps, and coordination mechanisms; presenting regulatory framework in these areas and in terms of strategic orientation and alignment with key EU acquis; and analyzing the role of institutions as part of an enabling environment for fostering investments.
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    Azerbaijan - Strengthening of the Food Safety System
    (Washington, DC, 2022-08-23) World Bank
    Azerbaijan’s agriculture is a key source of jobs and critical to maintain food security. Establishing a risk-based food safety system along all links of the value chains is one of the government’s strategic objectives in agriculture. This report outlines the results of a review of the opportunities for strengthening of the food safety system in Azerbaijan. The report focuses on two aspects: (i) analysis of the current strategy and directions for further development of the food safety system; and (ii) identifying the key capacity and capability priority needs in the existing food safety system to strengthen the operations of the Azerbaijan Food Safety Agency (AFSA).
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    Clean Air and Cool Planet, Volume II: Integrated Air Quality Management and Greenhouse Gas Reduction for Almaty and Nur-Sultan
    (Washington, DC, 2022-07) World Bank
    The report synthesizes key findings and recommendations of a study carried out under the World Bank’s Advisory Services and Analytics Program, ‘Central Asia: Climate and Environment Program,’ which aims to strengthen the capacity of Central Asian countries to achieve sustainable and resilient economic growth. It builds on a previous World Bank report, which provided the first national-level approximation of primary sources of air pollution in Kazakhstan. This city-level study highlights how potential synergies between air quality improvement and greenhouse gas reduction measures can be enhanced in a cost-effective manner. To identify and maximize these synergies and assess the measures’ cost-effectiveness at the city level, the study developed two new extensions to the Greenhouse Gas and Air Pollution Interactions and Synergies (GAINS) model—GAINS-City and GAINS-Policy and applied them in Almaty and Nur-Sultan, two major cities in Kazakhstan, for the first time. The report delivers evidence of the main causes of premature deaths from air pollution in Almaty and Nur-Sultan and offers guidance on cost-effective solutions to prevent them while making the cities better prepared for a low-carbon future. It provides high-level roadmaps for the cities' integrated air quality management and climate change mitigation to maximize synergies and manage tradeoffs. It proposes sequencing of actions until 2030 to save lives from poor air quality while facilitating long-term phase out of fossil fuels. Moreover, the report analyzes the need for policy reforms to incentivize implementation of cost-effective integrated measures by private economic actors. The report recognizes that reprioritizing policy actions slightly to maximize climate benefits may require some additional air quality management actions to address the unacceptably high burden that exposure to PM2.5 currently places on public health.
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    Uzbekistan Country Forest Note: The State of Forests and Forest Landscapes in Uzbekistan
    (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2022-06-30) World Bank
    This Country Forest Note offers an in-depth picture of the forest sector of Uzbekistan, viewed through a forest landscape lens, and provides guidance to help define goals and identify opportunities for the continued development of the sector. Despite a large number of current challenges, forest landscape management presents opportunities for sustainable development: increasing the forest area will provide additional benefits in terms of climate change. A holistic approach to soil degradation is required that includes improved livestock husbandry, soil management, and agricultural practices, all of which have a role to play. Leskhozes have a central role in transforming the forest sector and augmenting their capacity and skills needs to be an important consideration. Equally important is to encourage community participation through mahallas and create favorable conditions for private sector involvement. Strong government commitment and institutional and stakeholder buy-in and ownership are required to support the transition to more adaptive management in forestry. This transition is critical to address climate change issues, increased threats to forests, soil and water conservation, economic management of wood and non-wood forest products (NWFPs) from forested landscapes, and improvement of livelihoods of rural households.
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    Resilient Tashkent: Inputs into an Urban Resilience Strategy and Investment Program
    (Washington, DC, 2022-02) World Bank
    Tashkent’s strategic regional position and its projected growth, combined with the natural and human-made hazards it faces, will bring both opportunities and challenges to the city. One of Central Asia’s most populous and dynamic cities, Tashkent is the administrative and financial center of Uzbekistan, and its business continuity is essential for the country. The city contributes 16.2 percent of national GDP and is the largest urban market for goods and services in the central Asian region. Tashkent has strong transport, logistics and retail sectors coupled with a significant industrial heritage. Its advantageous location on the transit routes between China and Europe and with neighboring Kazakhstan, combined with declining restrictions on cross-border movements of goods and people, contribute to the increase in economic activity and the growing inflow of visitors both domestic and international. Tashkent has the unique opportunity to be the first city in Central Asia to develop an urban resilience strategy and investment program. Cities around the world are developing resilience strategies to enhance their resilience to local and global shocks and stresses. This report is intended to reinforce Tashkent’s potential to be the first city in Central Asia to develop a resilience strategy and through its implementation become a role-model to other cities in the region as well as join other cities globally that are also leading the way in enhancing urban resilience.
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    Constraints to Sustainable, Efficient, and Resilient Irrigation Systems in Georgia - What is a Possible Way Forward?: Irrigation Sector Policy Note
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2022-01-28) Vidal, Romain ; Pignatti, Norberto ; Sinha, Ranu ; Chachava, Mariam ; Pavlenishvili, Levan ; Fraval, Pierrick
    Agriculture plays a vital role in the economy of Georgia despite the relatively small size of the sector. Agriculture is the country’s largest employer and makes a significant contribution to exports even though agriculture contributes a modest share to total GDP. Following the collapse of the former Soviet Union, actual irrigated area in Georgia declined significantly. Georgia is currently facing important challenges related to the development of its agricultural sector, which requires the rehabilitation of irrigation and drainage systems and the establishment of institutional organizations that makes it sustainable. This policy note on the irrigation sector supports the World Bank-led analytical study on Agricultural, Land, and Water Policies to Scale-Up Sustainable Agri-Food Systems in Georgia. It was carried out during the months of April to July 2021, in close collaboration with the main stakeholders of the irrigation sector in Georgia and the services of the World Bank. The analysis in this policy note identifies the core constraints, which are hindering irrigation sector performance in Georgia and leading to the slow implementation of the irrigation strategy with a brief overview of some of the factors that are contributing to these constraints.