Sector/Thematic Studies

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Economic and Sectoral Work are original analytic reports authored by the World Bank and intended to influence programs and policy in client countries. They convey Bank-endorsed recommendations and represent the formal opinion of a World Bank unit on the topic. This set includes the sectoral and thematic studies which are not Core Diagnostic Studies. Other analytic and advisory activities (AAA), including technical assistance studies, are included in these sectoral/thematic collections.

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    The Future Of Medical Work in Southern Africa: Case Study of the Future of Medical Work and the Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Medical Work in South Africa
    (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2022-02-28) Ivins, Courtney Price ; Annie Liang ; Serfontein, Nicole Danielle ; Schneider, Pia Helene ; Matsebula, Thulani Clement
    Major global trends such as economic integration, urbanization, climate change, demographic shifts, digital and technological advances, and rising consumerism will all affect population health and shape the future of medical work. In South Africa, these trends can be harnessed as opportunities, but this will require the government to take a strategic approach and to give its immediate attention to six health workforce issues: (i) the mismatch between the number and the skills of health graduates produced by the health education system and the number and specialties needed for future medical work; (ii) the unsustainable financing system for expensive medical education; (iii) the large numbers of foreign-trained medical graduates whose degrees are not being fully recognized in South Africa; (iv) high vacancy rates in health facilities coinciding with high unemployment and inadequate human resource management; (v) insufficient data on the health workforce; and (vi) the public sector’s reluctance to collaborate with the private sector and international health labor. With more large-scale disasters looming, South Africa’s experience with the COVID-19 pandemic will provide important lessons for the future of medical work. Based on the findings of this case study, we make recommendations on health education policy and human resource policy. These include (i) investing in high- quality education and aligning investments in health education and medical research with future needs; (ii) looking for innovative ways to finance medical education; (iii) investing in the health workforce on the basis of health workforce planning and future projections of need; (iv) modernizing the human resource management in health facilities and facilitating the use of modern technology; (v) making substantial investments in the collection and analysis of data on the health workforce and using results in workforce planning; and (vi) expanding public-private sector collaboration and developing policies to manage the mobility of the health workforce to and from the private sector and abroad.
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    Vulnerability Map for Response to the COVID-19 Epidemic: A Case Study on Indonesia
    (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2022-02-01) Hou, Xiaohui ; Stewart, Benjamin P. ; Tariverdi, Mersedeh ; Pambudi, Eko Setyo ; Harimurti, Pandu ; Nagpal, Somil ; Jia, Wei ; Vicencio, Jasmine Marie ; Görgens, Marelize ; Garrett, Keith Patrick
    The COVID-19 pandemic has emerged as a threat to global health security. This paper uses geospatial analyses to create a COVID Vulnerability Mapping Dashboard that examines and displays social vulnerability indices at the national and subnational levels in Indonesia. The dashboard answers three main questions: 1. Where are the vulnerable populations 2. What is the capacity of local health systems and 3. What is the local trend in COVID cases The dashboard prototype presented herein was developed and used to direct attention to geographic areas where risks are expected to be greatest.
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    Guidance Note on Climate Change in Governance Operations
    (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2021-11-01)
    Climate change is the consequence of market and governance failures. The World Bank Group’s climate change strategy, laid out in its 2025 Climate Targets and Actions, recognizes that governance will play a critical role in addressing climate change. The strategy commits the World Bank to support clients’ efforts to mainstream climate action and fully integrate climate change into their planning, budgeting and fiscal policies. The Governance Practice plays a leading role in the implementation of this strategy, through its work with center of government, planning and finance agencies, inter-governmental relations, governance of State-Owned Enterprises, and open government initiatives. This Note provides an overview of the Bank’s corporate climate change commitments and the application of these commitments in the Governance Practice. Annex 1 provides an illustrative list of climate change governance activities by business lines and identifies example projects. Annex 2 presents an illustrative list of Governance Climate Change indicators. Annex 3 provides additional information on climate co-benefits in projects with ICT and Gov-Tech activities.