03. Journals

2,963 items available

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These are journal articles published in World Bank journals as well as externally by World Bank authors.

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Now showing 1 - 6 of 6
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    The Long-term Impacts of International Migration: Evidence from a Lottery
    (Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the World Bank, 2018-02-01) Gibson, John ; McKenzie, David ; Rohorua, Halahingano ; Stillman, Steven
    We examine the long-term impacts of international migration by comparing immigrants who had successful ballot entries in a migration lottery program, and first moved almost a decade ago, with people who had unsuccessful entries into those same ballots. The long-term gain in income is found to be similar in magnitude to the gain in the first year despite migrants upgrading their education and changing their locations and occupations. This results in large sustained benefits to their immediate family who have substantially higher consumption, durable asset ownership, savings, and dietary diversity. In contrast we find no measurable impact on extended family.
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    Prices, Engel Curves, and Time-Space Deflation: Impacts on Poverty and Inequality in Vietnam
    (Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the World Bank, 2017-06-01) Gibson, John ; Le, Trinh ; Kim, Bonggeun
    Many developing countries lack spatially disaggregated price data. Some analysts use “no-price” methods by using a food Engel curve to derive the deflator as that needed for nominally similar households to have equal food shares in all regions and time periods. This method cannot be tested in countries where it is used as a spatial deflator since they lack suitable price data. In this paper, data from Vietnam are used to test this method against benchmarks provided by multilateral price indexes calculated from repeated spatial price surveys. Deflators from a food Engel curve appear to be a poor proxy for deflators obtained from multilateral price indexes. To the extent that such price indexes reliably compare real living standards over time and space, these results suggest that estimates of the level, location, and change in poverty and inequality would be distorted if the Engel method deflator was used in their stead.
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    The Development Impact of a Best Practice Seasonal Worker Policy
    (MIT Press, 2014-05) Gibson, John ; McKenzie, David
    Seasonal migration programs are widely used around the world, yet there is little evidence as to their development impacts. A multi-year prospective evaluation of New Zealand's Recognised Seasonal Employer (RSE) seasonal worker program allows us to measure the impact of participating in this program on households in Tonga and Vanuatu. Using a propensity-score pre-screened difference-in-differences analysis based on surveys fielded before, during, and after participation, we find that the RSE has indeed had positive development impacts that dwarf those of other popular development interventions. It has increased income, consumption, and savings of households; durable goods ownership; and subjective standard of living. The results also suggest that child schooling improved in Tonga.
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    The Impact of Financial Literacy Training for Migrants
    (Oxford University Press on behalf of the World Bank, 2014-01-23) Gibson, John ; McKenzie, David ; Zia, Bilal
    Remittances are a major source of external financing for many developing countries, but the cost of sending them remains high in many migration corridors. Despite efforts to lower these costs by offering new products and developing cost-comparison information sources, many new and promising inexpensive remittance methods have relatively low adoption rates. The lack of financial literacy among migrants has been identified as one potentially important barrier to competition and new product adoption. This paper presents the results of a randomized experiment designed to measure the impact of providing financial literacy training to migrants. Training appears to increase financial knowledge and information-seeking behavior and reduces the risk of switching to costlier remittance products, but it does not result in significant changes in the frequency of remitting or in the remitted amount.
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    The Impact of Immigration on Child Health: Experimental Evidence from a Migration Lorrery Program
    (Western Economic Association International, 2012-01) Stillman, Steven ; Gibson, John ; McKenzie, David
    This paper uses a unique survey designed by the authors to compare migrant children who enter New Zealand through a random ballot with children in the home country of Tonga whose families were unsuccessful participants in the same ballots. We find that migration increases height and reduces stunting of infants and toddlers, but also increases BMI and obesity among 3- to 5-yr-olds. These impacts are quite large even though the average migrant household has been in New Zealand for less than 1 yr. Additional results suggest that these impacts occur because of dietary change rather than direct income effects.
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    The Microeconomic Determinants of Emigration and Return Migration of the Best and Brightest: Evidence from the Pacific
    ( 2011) Gibson, John ; McKenzie, David
    A unique survey which tracks worldwide the best and brightest academic performers from three Pacific countries is used to assess the extent of emigration and return migration among the very highly skilled, and to analyze, at the microeconomic level, the determinants of these migration choices. Although we estimate that the income gains from migration are very large, not everyone migrates and many return. Within this group of highly skilled individuals the emigration decision is found to be most strongly associated with preference variables such as risk aversion and patience, and choice of subjects in secondary school, and not strongly linked to either liquidity constraints or to the gain in income to be had from migrating. Likewise, the decision to return is strongly linked to family and lifestyle reasons, rather than to the income opportunities in different countries. Overall the data suggest a relatively limited role for income maximization in distinguishing migration propensities among the very highly skilled, and a need to pay more attention to other components of the utility maximization decision.