03. Journals

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These are journal articles published in World Bank journals as well as externally by World Bank authors.







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    Measuring Human Capital in Middle Income Countries
    (Elsevier, 2022-12) Demirgüç-Kunt, Asli ; Torre, Iván
    This paper develops an indicator that measures the level of human capital to address the specific education and health challenges faced by middle income countries. We apply this indicator to countries in Europe and Central Asia, where productive employment requires skills that are more prevalent among higher education graduates, and where good health is associated to low levels of adult health risk factors. The Europe and Central Asia Human Capital Index (ECA-HCI) extends the World Bank's Human Capital Index by adding a measure of quality-adjusted years of higher education to the original education component, and it includes the prevalence of three adult health risk factors—obesity, smoking, and heavy drinking—as an additional proxy for latent health status. The results show that children born today in the average country in Europe and Central Asia will be almost half as productive as they would have had they reached the benchmark of complete education and full health. Countries with good basic education outcomes do not necessarily have good higher education outcomes, and high prevalence of adult health risk factors can offset good education indicators. This extension of the Human Capital Index could also be useful for assessing the state of human capital in middle-income countries in general.
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    Returns to Education in Azerbaijan: Some New Estimates
    (Taylor and Francis, 2021-02-05) Garcia Moreno, Vicente ; Patrinos, Harry Anthony
    This article estimates private and social returns to investment in education in Azerbaijan, using the 2015 Azerbaijan Monitoring Survey for Social Welfare. The private rate of return to education is 6 percent; this is the first estimate of returns to schooling in Azerbaijan since 1995. The returns to schooling are 6 percent for men and 8 percent for women, even controlling for selection. In addition, the article estimates the returns for higher education; for this level, the rate of return is 9 percent. Finally, using the full discount method, the private rate of return for tertiary education is 9 percent, and the social rate of return is 8 percent. One policy implication is to reexamine the funding of higher education and its expansion.
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    The Effect of Compulsory Schooling Expansion on Mothers’ Attitudes Toward Domestic Violence in Turkey
    (Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the World Bank, 2020-06) Gulesci, Selim ; Meyersson, Erik ; Trommlerová, Sofia K.
    An extensive literature examines the intergenerational spillover effects of education, but evidence on the causal effects of children's education on their parents’ outcomes is scarce. This paper estimates the spillover effects of children's schooling on their mothers’ attitudes toward domestic violence in Turkey. To identify the causal effect of children's schooling, we take advantage of a reform that took place in Turkey in 1997 and expanded compulsory schooling from five to eight years. Using a regression discontinuity design based on monthly birth cohorts and data from the 2008 and 2013 waves of the Turkey Demographic and Health Surveys, this paper shows that mothers whose eldest daughters were exposed to higher compulsory schooling are by 12 percentage points less likely to find domestic violence justifiable, which represents a decrease by 43 percent. We find no similar effect for boys’ schooling. Our findings demonstrate that children's schooling can have impacts on their parents’ attitudes, and such effects are likely to vary by the gender of the child.
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    Can Parental Migration Reduce Petty Corruption in Education?
    (Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the World Bank, 2018-02-01) Höckel, Lisa Sofie ; Santos Silva, Manuel ; Stöhr, Tobias
    The income generated from parental migration can increase funds available for children’s education. In countries where informal payments to teachers are common migration could therefore increase petty corruption in education. To test this hypothesis, we investigate the effect of migration on educational inputs. We use an instrumental variables approach on survey data and matched administrative records from the World Bank’s Open Budget Initiative (BOOST) from Moldova, one of the countries with the highest emigration rates. Contrary to the positive income effect, we find that the strongest migration-related response in private education expenditure is a substantial decrease in informal payments to public school teachers. Any positive income effect due to migration must hence be overcompensated by some payment-reducing effects. We discuss a number of potential explanations at the family level, school level or community level. We furthermore rule out several of these explanations and highlight possible interpretations for future research.
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    Can Regulations Make It More Difficult to Serve the Poor?: The Case of Childcare Services in istanbul, Turkey
    (Taylor and Francis, 2016-11-03) Aran, Meltem A. ; Aktakke, Nazli ; Munoz Boudet, Ana Maria
    Private and community-driven efforts can be an important resource to expand early childhood education and care (ECEC) services to poor children, under the right conditions and design. The regulations imposed on private ECEC provision, while having an impact on quality, may increase costs of provision and in return prices of services, reducing accessibility and affordability for poor households. This paper considers the impact of regulations on private ECEC in a highly regulated childcare market in a developing country. Using data from a recently fielded survey that sampled 141 private ECEC facilities in Istanbul, Turkey, the paper looks at the impact of fixed regulations on prices and poor children’s access to services, in particular the outdoor space requirement that was originally imposed on private providers in the 1960s and has over time become more difficult to fulfill in densely populated districts of the city. The paper estimates that controlling for other provider characteristics, in districts where such requirement is more binding, the price of childcare services increases by 376.2 TL per child per month and the percentage of children enrolled coming from poor backgrounds lowers by 15.1% points than in districts where such standard proves less challenging.