03. Journals

2,963 items available

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These are journal articles published in World Bank journals as well as externally by World Bank authors.

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Now showing 1 - 10 of 86
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    Engaging Men to Transform Inequitable Gender Attitudes and Prevent Intimate Partner Violence: A Cluster Randomised Controlled Trial in North and South Kivu, Democratic Republic of Congo
    (BMJ Global Health, 2020-05-27) Vaillant, Julia ; Koussoubé, Estelle ; Roth, Danielle ; Pierotti, Rachael Susan ; Hossain, Mazeda ; Falb, Kathryn L
    Globally, one in three women worldwide report experiencing intimate partner violence (IPV) in their lifetime. The study objective was to understand the effectiveness of Engaging Men through Accountable Practice (EMAP), a group-based discussion series which sought to transform gender relations in communities, on intimate partner violence (IPV), gender inequitable attitudes and related outcomes. Interventions engaging men have the potential to change gender attitudes and behaviours in conflict-affected areas. However, while EMAP led to changes in gender attitudes and behaviours related to perpetration of IPV, the study showed no overall reduction of women’s experience of IPV. Further research is needed to understand how working with men may lead to long-term and meaningful changes in IPV and related gender equitable attitudes and behaviours in conflict areas.
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    The Medium-Term Effects of Scholarships in a Low-Income Country
    (University of Wisconsin Press, 2014-09) Filmer, Deon ; Schady, Norbert
    Despite progress in recent decades, a substantial fraction of children in developing countries attain little schooling, and many adults lack skills that are valued in the labor market. We evaluate the medium-term effects of a program that provided scholarships for three years to poor children upon graduation from elementary school in Cambodia, a low-income country. To do this we use a sharp regression discontinuity design. We show that scholarships have substantial effects on school attainment. By the time children would have been in grade 11 had they remained in school, two years after they stopped being eligible for scholarships, those who were offered scholarships have attained 0.6 more grades of completed schooling. Nevertheless, we find no evidence that scholarships had significant effects on test scores, employment, earnings, or the probability of getting married or having a child in adolescence.
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    The Effects of School-based Management in the Philippines : An Initial Assessment Using Administrative Data
    (Taylor and Francis, 2012-06-19) Khattri, Nidhi ; Ling, Cristina ; Jha, Shreyasi
    This paper estimates the effect of school-based management on student performance in the Philippines using the administrative dataset of all public schools in 23 school districts over a three-year period, 2003–2005. The authors test whether schools that received early school-based management interventions (training in school-based management and direct funding for school-based reforms, based on school improvement plans) attained higher average test scores than those that did not receive such inputs. The analysis uses school-level overall composite test scores (comprising all subject areas tested) and test scores in three separate subject areas: English, mathematics, and science. Their preferred estimator, difference-in-difference with propensity score matching, shows that the average treatment effect of participation in school-based management was higher by 1.5 percentage points for overall composite scores, 1.2 percentage points for mathematics scores, 1.4 percentage points for English scores, and 1.8 percentage points for science scores. These results suggest that the introduction of school-based management had a statistically significant, albeit small, overall positive effect on average school-level test scores in 23 school districts in the Philippines. The paper provides a first glimpse of the potential for school-based management in a Southeast Asian context based on available administrative data. The authors suggest that the next order of research is to answer policy-related questions regarding the reforms: what aspects of the reform lead to desired results; are there differential effects across subpopulations; and what are the potential downsides to the reforms? The authors recommend that countries embarking on implementation of school-based management reforms specify their school-based management model and theories of change clearly and advance mechanisms for rigorous evaluations simultaneously. Such evaluations should not only provide more accurate estimates of the effectiveness of the reforms, but also help answer policy-related questions regarding design and implementation of those reforms in different sociocultural contexts.
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    How to Deal with Covert Child Labor and Give Children an Effective Education, in a Poor Developing Country
    (World Bank, 2012-01-18) Cigno, Alessandro
    Because credit and insurance markets are imperfect and intrafamily transfers and how children use their time outside school hours are private information, the second-best policy makes school enrollment compulsory, forces overt child labor below its efficient level (if positive), and uses a combination of need- and merit-based grants, financed by earmarked taxes, to relax credit constraints, redistribute, and insure. Existing conditional cash transfer schemes can be made to approximate the second-best policy by incorporating these principles in some measure.
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    Impact Evaluation of School Feeding Programs in Lao PDR
    (Taylor and Francis, 2011-11-25) Buttenheim, Alison ; Alderman, Harold ; Friedman, Jed
    Despite the popularity and widespread implementation of school feeding programmes, evidence of their impact on school participation and nutritional status is mixed. In this study we evaluate feeding programmes in three districts of the Lao People's Democratic Republic. Feeding modalities included on-site feeding, take-home rations, and a combined modality. District-level implementation of the intervention sites and selective take-up presented considerable evaluation challenges. To address these, we use difference-in-difference estimators with propensity-score weighting to construct plausible counterfactuals. We find minimal evidence that school feeding increased enrolment or improved nutritional status. Several robustness checks and possible explanations for null findings are presented.
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    Do Labor Statistics Depend on How and to Whom the Questions Are Asked? Results from a Survey Experiment in Tanzania
    (World Bank, 2011-10-18) Bardasi, Elena ; Beegle, Kathleen ; Dillon, Andrew ; Serneels, Pieter
    Labor market statistics are critical for assessing and understanding economic development. However, widespread variation exists in how labor statistics are collected in household surveys. This paper analyzes the effects of alternative survey design on employment statistics by implementing a randomized survey experiment in Tanzania. Two features of the survey design are assessed – the level of detail of the employment questions and the type of respondent. It turns out that both features have relevant and statistically significant effects on employment statistics. Using a short labor module without screening questions induces many individuals to adopt a broad definition of employment, incorrectly including domestic duties. But after reclassifying those in domestic work as ‘not working’ in order to obtain the correct ILO classification, the short module turns out to generate lower female employment rates, higher working hours for both men and women who are employed, and lower rates of wage employment than the detailed module. Response by proxy rather than self-report has no effect on female labor statistics but yields substantially lower male employment rates, mostly due to underreporting of agricultural activity. The large impacts of proxy responses on male employment rates are attenuated when proxy informants are spouses and individuals with some schooling.
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    Does the Internet Reduce Corruption? Evidence from U.S. States and across Countries
    (World Bank, 2011-10-18) Barnebeck Andersen, Thomas ; Bentzen, Jeanet ; Dalgaard, Carl-Johan ; Selaya, Pablo
    We test the hypothesis that the Internet is a useful technology for controlling corruption. In order to do so, we develop a novel identification strategy for Internet diffusion. Power disruptions damage digital equipment, which increases the user cost of IT capital, and thus lowers the speed of Internet diffusion. A natural phenomenon causing power disruptions is lightning activity, which makes lightning a viable instrument for Internet diffusion. Using ground-based lightning detection censors as well as global satellite data, we construct lightning density data for the contiguous U.S. states and a large cross section of countries. Empirically, lightning density is a strong instrument for Internet diffusion and our IV estimates suggest that the emergence of the Internet has served to reduce the extent of corruption across U.S. states and across the world.
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    Knowledge and Innovation Management in the Policy Debate on Biofuel Sustainability in Mozambique : What Roles for Researchers?
    (Taylor and Francis, 2011-10-07) Schut, Marc ; Leeuwis, Cees ; van Paassen, Annemarie ; Lerner, Anna
    This paper explores the relationship between knowledge management (KM) and innovation management (IM) in policy processes. By describing and analysing the roles of researchers as knowledge and innovation managers in policy processes we also contribute to the debate on how researchers can enhance their effective contribution to policy processes. Empirical data for the paper were gathered between December 2008 and November 2010. During that period, two of this paper's authors conducted participatory action research whilst supporting the Mozambican inter-ministerial Subgroup Sustainability Criteria in developing a sustainability framework for biofuel production in Mozambique. We conclude that KM and IM are mutually reinforcing and inextricably bound: KM can provide the basis for engaging in IM activities or roles, which may -- consequently -- create an enabling environment for more effective KM in policy processes. The active embedding of researchers in policy processes an action-oriented research approach and systematic reflection can enable researchers to continuously determine what (combination of) KM and IM strategies or roles can enhance the actionability of research in, and the quality of the policy process. To do so successfully, a process-based research approach and strategic management of the boundary between research and policy are key.
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    Interview with Steven Livingston on Information Systems and Development
    ( 2011-09) World Bank
    An Interview with Steven Livingston, Professor of Media and Public Affairs and International Affairs. His research and teaching focus on media, information technology, national security and global politics. Dr. Livingston’s most recent publications include, When the Press Fails: Political Power and the News Media from Iraq to Katrina (2007), co-authored with W. Lance Bennett and Regina Lawrence) and Africa’s Evolving Infosystems: A Pathway to Security and Stability (2010), assessing the effects of the rapid growth of ICT on governance in Africa.
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    The Power of Public Discourse
    ( 2011-09) Dowsing, Kavita Abraham ; Deane, James
    The concept of open development presupposes a greatly increased supply of information available to citizens on the issues, products, and services that shape their lives. It means that governments should make information on budgets accessible and intelligible, local authorities should provide access to information about the provision of services that citizens can expect, and donors should be transparent about what they are spending, specifying for what and why, and doing so in forms that beneficiaries can use.