03. Journals

3,060 items available

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These are journal articles published in World Bank journals as well as externally by World Bank authors.

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Now showing 1 - 10 of 3060
  • Publication
    The Relationship between Climate Action and Poverty Reduction
    (Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the World Bank, 2023-12-30) Lankes, Hand Peter; Macquarie, Rob; Soubeyran, Éléonore; Stern, Nicholas
    There is growing awareness that actions by policymakers and international organizations to reduce poverty, and those to mitigate and adapt to climate change, are inextricably linked and interwoven. This paper examines relevant academic and policy literature and evidence on this relationship and explores the potential for a new form of development that simultaneously mitigates climate change, manages its impacts, and improves the wellbeing of people in poverty. First, as a key foundation, it outlines the backdrop in basic moral philosophy, noting that climate action and poverty reduction can be motivated both by a core principle based on the right to development and by the conventional consequentialism that is standard in economics. Second, it reviews assessments of the current and potential future impacts of weakly managed climate change on the wellbeing of those in poverty, paying attention to unequal effects, including by gender. Third, it examines arguments and literature on the economic impacts of climate action and policies and how those affect the wellbeing of people in poverty, highlighting the importance of market failures, technological change, systemic dynamics of transition, and distributional effects of mitigation and adaptation. Finally, the paper surveys the current state of knowledge and understanding of how climate action and poverty reduction can be integrated in policy design, indicating where further research can contribute to a transition that succeeds in both objectives.
  • Publication
    Import Uncertainty and Export Dynamics
    (Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the World Bank, 2023-12-18) Vijil, Mariana; Wagner, Laurent; Woldemichael, Martha Tesfaye
    A supply chain is only as strong as its weakest link. Firms are constantly managing uncertainties, including unexpected delays in the provision of a critical input that can slow down or halt the production process, possibly making the manufacturer miss a delivery deadline. As most exporters are also importers of intermediate goods, supply chain unreliability related to import processing times at the border could impact downstream export dynamics. The role of unpredictability in border-clearance times for imports in manufacturing firms’ entry, exit, and survival in export markets is investigated using the PPML estimator on a rich dataset built on firm level information for 48 developing countries over 2006–2014. Uncertainty in the time to clear imported inputs impacts neither the entry nor the exit rate, but translates into lower survival rates for new exporters, reducing the number of firms that continue serving the foreign market beyond their first year of entry. This effect grows larger over time, owing to rising reputational costs to input-importing exporters and is mainly driven by South-North trade, possibly reflecting the time-sensitivity of buyers in developed countries. Results also reveal heterogeneous effects across export industries, and the mediating role of sunk costs of entry in foreign markets, which attenuate the negative effect of uncertainty on survival rates as firms delay exiting the export market.
  • Publication
    Cooperative Membership and Exposure to Role Models: Implications for Income and Asset Aspirations
    (Elsevier, 2023-12-01) Tabe-Ojong, Martin Paul Jr.; Heckelei, Thomas; Baylis, Kathy; Rasch, Sebastian
    Although it is increasingly recognized that aspirations drive economic behavior and outcomes, it is not fully understood how aspirations are formed (or eroded). However, it has been theoretically established that aspirations are socially constructed and formed under an aspiration window. An aspiration window refers to a cognitive zone of similar individuals based on age, gender, caste, geography, religion, ethnicity, and other social (self-help) groups. In these groups, individuals learn from each other through interaction and experimentation. We examine the relationship between group membership and aspirations. As a proxy for group membership, we use agricultural cooperatives that abound in many developing countries and have been associated with productivity and welfare gains. Given that farmers interact and are exposed to role models in these cooperatives, we also investigate the relationship between exposure to role models and aspirations. We show a positive association between cooperative membership and aspirations as well as between exposure to role models and aspirations. Interacting cooperative membership with exposure to role models, we find a larger association between cooperative membership and aspirations, highlighting the relevance of exposure to role models in these cooperatives. Given the growing evidence regarding the relevance of aspirations in achieving various developmental outcomes, our study highlights some entry points in improving aspirations.
  • Publication
    Labor Market and Macroeconomic Dynamics in Latin America amid COVID: The Role of Digital-Adoption Policies
    (Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the World Bank, 2023-12-01) Finkelstein Shapiro, Alan; Nuguer, Victoria; Novoa Gomez, Santiago
    This paper analyzes how a policy that lowers firm digital-adoption costs shapes the labor-market and economic recovery from COVID-19 in Latin America (LA) using a framework with firm entry and unemployment, where salaried firms can adopt digital technologies and the employment and firm structure embodies key features of LA economies. Using Mexico as a case study, the model replicates the response of the labor market and output at the onset of the COVID recession and in its aftermath, including the dynamics of labor-force participation and informal employment. A policy-induced permanent reduction in the cost of adopting digital technologies at the trough of the recession bolsters the recovery of GDP, total employment, and labor income, and leads to a larger expansion in the share of formal employment compared to a no-policy scenario. In the long run, the economy exhibits a reduction in total employment but higher levels of GDP and labor income, greater average firm productivity, a larger formal employment share, and a marginally lower unemployment rate. Finally, as a side effect, the policy exacerbates the differential between formal and informal labor income, both as the economy recovers from the COVID recession and in the long run.
  • Publication
    Shifting Attitudes towards Domestic Violence: The Impact of Primary Education on Women’s Marital Outcomes in Benin
    (Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the World Bank, 2023-12-01) Deschênes, Sarah; Hotte, Rozenn
    The paper examines the effect of a primary education program in Benin on women’s marital outcomes. The study leverages a sharp increase in the construction of schools in the 1990s to assess the causal impact of an increase in primary-school supply on primary-school attendance, employment, marital outcomes, and experience and tolerance of intimate partner violence (IPV). Using quasi-experimental geographical and historical variations in the number of schools built, the results indicate that in rural areas the school building program increased the probability of attending primary school and increased the age at marriage and at first child. It decreased the probability that women find domestic violence justified and that they experience emotional IPV. The effects are driven by women’s own increase in education rather than their husbands.
  • Publication
    The effects of booster classes in protracted crisis settings: Evidence from Kenyan refugee camps (Published online: 13 Jul 2023)
    (Taylor and Francis, 2023-10-12) Brudevold-Newman, Andrew; De Hoop, Thomas; Holla, Chinmaya; Isaboke, Darius; Kinoti, Timothy; Ring, Hannah; Rothbard, Victoria
    Students in protracted crisis settings often face a range of challenges which combine to yield low education outcomes. This paper presents the results from a randomised controlled trial of weekend and holiday booster classes for 7th and 8th grade girls in Kakuma refugee camp in Kenya, that aimed to improve girls’ education outcomes and increase transition rates from primary to secondary school. While qualitative results suggested numerous advantages of the booster classes, including more freedom to ask questions, smaller class sizes, and kinder teachers, the program did not yield statistically significant effects on learning outcomes, school attendance or noncognitive skills. Mixed-methods research suggests that the limited impacts may stem from implementation challenges including irregular booster class attendance and a lack of appropriate teaching materials. More broadly, the results show the importance of accounting for implementation challenges in the reporting of impact evaluation results.
  • Publication
    Scaling Education Innovations in Complex Emergencies: A Meta-Evaluation of Five Process and Three Impact Evaluations (Published online: 30 Sep 2022)
    (Taylor and Francis, 2023-10-12) De Hoop, Thomas; Coombes, Andrea; Ring, Hannah; Hunt, Kelsey; Rothbard, Victoria; Holla, Chinmaya
    The papers in this special issue describe evaluations of the scaling journey of five different education programmes operating in humanitarian crises. This introduction first presents the research context for these evaluations followed by a synthesis of the overarching barriers and facilitators to scaling across three domains: (1) context, (2) business model, and (3) advocacy and ownership based on a qualitative synthesis. The synthesis showed that implementers often started multiple pilot projects in different contexts rather than scaling-up in one context. We also present a summary of impacts on learning outcomes from impact evaluations of three of the five education programmes.
  • Publication
    Regional Convergence in Bangladesh Using Night Lights (Published online: 10 Jul 2022)
    (Taylor and Francis, 2023-10-12) Basher, Syed Abul; Rashid, Salim; Uddin, Mohammad Riad
    We analyse economic convergence across 64 districts of Bangladesh using newly harmonized satellite night light data over 1992–2018. The growth in night lights – taken as a proxy for regional economic activity – reveals overwhelming evidence of absolute convergence. Regional differences in night light (or income) growth have been shrinking at an annual convergence rate of 4.57%, corresponding to a half-life of 15 years. Net migration plays a relatively prominent role in the regional convergence process.
  • Publication
    Impacts of Performance‑Based Financing on Health System Performance: Evidence From The Democratic Republic of Congo (Published: 04 October 2023)
    (BMC Medicine, 2023-10-10) Shapira, Gil; Booto, Baudouin Makuma; Samaha, Hadia; Fritsche, György Bèla; Muvudi, Michel; Baabo, Dominique; Antwisi, Delphin; Ramanana, Didier; Benami, Saloua; Fink, Günther
    Health systems’ weakness remains one of the primary obstacles towards achieving universal access to quality healthcare in low-income settings. Performance-based financing (PBF) programs have been increasingly used to increase access to quality care in LMICs. However, evidence on the impacts of these programs remains fragmented and inconclusive. We analyze the health system impacts of the PBF program in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), one of the largest such programs introduced in LMICs to date. We used a health systems perspective to analyze the benefits of PBF relative to unconditional financing of health facilities. Fifty-eight health zones in six provinces were randomly assigned to either a control group (28 zones) in which facilities received unconditional transfers or to a PBF program (30 zones) that started at the end of 2016. Follow-up data collection took place in 2021–2022 and included health facility assessments, health worker interviews, direct observations of consultations and deliveries, patient exit interviews, and household surveys. Using multivariate regression models, we estimated the impact of the program on 55 outcomes in seven health system domains: structural quality, technical process quality, non-technical process quality, service fees, facility management, providers’ satisfaction, and service coverage. We used random-effects meta-analysis to generate pooled average estimates within each domain. The PBF program improved the structural quality of health facilities by 4 percentage points (ppts) (95% CI 0.01–0.08), technical process quality by 5 ppts (0.03–0.07), and non-technical process by 2 ppts (0–0.04). PBF also increased coverage of priority health services by 3 ppts (0.02–0.04). Improvements were also observed for facility management (9 ppts, 0.04–0.15), service fee policies, and users’ satisfaction with service affordability (14 ppts, 0.07–0.20). Service fees and health workers’ satisfaction were not affected by the program. The results suggest that well-designed PBF programs can lead to improvements in most health systems domains relative to comparable unconditional financing. However, the large persisting gaps suggest that additional changes, such as allocating more resources to the health system and reforming the human resources for health management, will be necessary in DRC to achieve the ambitious global universal health coverage and mortality goals.
  • Publication
    Social Norms and Gender Disparities with a Focus on Female Labor Force Participation in South Asia
    (Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the World Bank, 2023-09-23) Bussolo, Maurizio; Ezebuihe, Jessy Amarachi; Muñoz Boudet, Ana Maria; Poupakis, Stavros; Rahman, Tasmia; Sarma, Nayantara
    Despite decades of economic growth, gender disparities in South Asia remain remarkably high. Although not the only one, social norms are a crucial driver of various gender outcomes, including differential economic participation. Using repeated cross-sectional data from nationally representative surveys, this study explores long-term trends across gender outcomes and social norms(contrasting attitudes and social normative expectations towards gender roles) in South Asia. The results corroborate the evidence that there has been almost no progress in gender disparities in South Asia over the past half-century. There has been little progress in female labor force participation, age at first birth, agency, and intimate partner violence, while (basic) education is an important exception. The lack of progress is apparent among all layers of society, including women who live in urban areas, are educated, and have higher incomes. Gender attitudes also remain unchanged, while for some issues, they have become more conservative and have a negative relationship with gender outcomes. This negative relationship is even stronger when social normative expectations are considered. More data on social norms and a better understanding of their constraining role may be critical for achieving gender equality in the region.