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Publication(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2021-07) World Bank GroupThe Country Opinion Survey in Cambodia assists the World Bank Group (WBG) in gaining a better understanding of how stakeholders in Cambodia perceive the WBG. It provides the WBG with systematic feedback from national and local governments, multilateral/bilateral agencies, media, academia, the private sector, and civil society in Cambodia on 1) their views regarding the general environment in Cambodia; 2) their overall attitudes toward the WBG in Cambodia; 3) overall impressions of the WBG’s effectiveness and results, knowledge work and activities, and communication and information sharing in Cambodia; and 4) their perceptions of the WBG’s future role in Cambodia.
Publication(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2011-12) Girishankar, Navin ; DeGroot, David ; Desai, Raj ; Stout, Susan ; Wescott, ClayCambodia is one of the world's most open economies, sustaining high levels of growth in an environment of relatively weak governance. Emerging from a legacy of genocide and civil conflict, the country has sought to address human and social capital deficits across sectors, weaknesses in public finance, and corruption. Despite improvements in access to basic services, governance constraints persist and may threaten gains from economic integration. Over the 2004-10 period, the Bank's engagement on Governance and Anticorruption (GAC) issues in Cambodia was not defined by a single, overarching priority or entry point (such as core public sector management, natural resource management, or service delivery). Rather, the Bank was opportunistic, opting to support the government's GAC efforts across multiple sectors and institutions. The relevance of this opportunistic approach is judged to be moderately relevant. The Bank's objectives on public financial management (PFM) were highly relevant given Cambodia's nontransparent and weak public expenditure management and limited capacity. The Bank's response to sectoral governance weaknesses such as red tape, inefficiencies, and other forms of rent-seeking in customs is rated modest given the need for the government to implement its World Trade Organization commitments. The Bank's project level engagement is rated as moderately relevant. As a basis for reinstating suspended projects, portfolio-wide measures included the use of an Independent Procurement Agency (IPA) for the International Development Association (IDA) procurements, and the implementation of Good Governance Frameworks (GGF) for all IDA projects.
Publication(Washington, DC: World Bank, 2010) Independent Evaluation GroupCambodia emerged in the early 1990s from 30 years of conflict, the brutal Khmer Rouge era, and a decade of Vietnamese occupation, with one of the world’s lowest per-capita incomes, and with social indicators far behind those of neighboring Southeast Asian countries. Physical infrastructure had been largely destroyed. United Nations intervention led to a peace agreement in 1991, a new constitution, elections, and formation of a coalition government, although a reduced level of conflict and political instability continued until the late 1990s. The government began a process of economic liberalization in the late 1980s which has been sustained. The donor world responded rapidly to Cambodia’s huge resource need with a high level of concessional aid which has been sustained. Since the mid-1990s the economy has been growing steadily; by 2006, per-capita incomes were double the 1998 level and the incidence of poverty had been significantly reduced. Social indicators have improved, generally to above the average for low-income countries, but are still well below those for most Southeast Asian countries. The Bank has focused on governance issues with increasing intensity in each succeeding country assistance strategy, and has worked with other donors in a number of areas. Progress has been made on certain governance-related issues such as public financial management, including expenditure reorientation, the poverty focus in health and education services, and support for decentralized, community-based development programs.
The Poverty Reduction Strategy Initiative : Findings from 10 Country Case Studies of World Bank and IMF Support(Washington, DC: World Bank, 2005-01-01) World Bank Operations Evaluation Department ; IMF Independent Evaluation OfficeThis book provides an independent assessment of the Poverty Reduction Strategy Initiative for the World Bank as well as the broader development community. It offers a in-depth review of the progress thus far, with particular focus on the role and effectiveness of the Bank's support, drawing from extensive discussions with national stakeholders in Poverty Reduction Strategy (PRSP) countries, research and analytical work, and country case study reports on ten PRSP countries: Albania, Cambodia, Ethiopia, Guinea, Mauritania, Mozambique, Nicaragua, Tajikistan, Tanzania, and Vietnam. The author of The Poverty Reduction Strategy Initiative concludes that the Initiative has led to improvements in national strategies and processes in some low-income countries, such as an increased poverty focus, a higher profile for monitoring results, and better donor-government dialogue. However, the contribution to broad poverty reduction, especially in more difficult country environments, is largely in jeopardy without significant changes. The author argues that the Initiative should be reoriented toward improving domestic processes and less on completion of documents, customizing the approach to particular country circumstances, filling analytical gaps to better understand which actions will provide the greatest poverty pay-off, and making sure the assistance programs of external partners are anchored in the country's poverty reduction strategy.
Publication(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2004-07-06) Operations Evaluation DepartmentThis report analyzes the experience of Cambodia with the Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (PRSP) process3. The focus of the report is on evaluating the performance of the World Bank in supporting the PRSP initiative, not on appraising the authorities policies. Given the early stage of the PRS Process, with the document only formally launched by government in March 2003, the report focuses on the process of PRSP formulation in Cambodia and the genesis of the implementation phase. The report is structured as follows: the remainder of section one provides brief background information about Cambodia. Section two offers an appraisal of the PRSP formulation process and of the document itself, focusing on aspects relevant to an evaluation of the World Bank s role. Section three assesses the World Bank s support to the process. Section four summarizes the main points of the assessment and attempts to draw lessons of more general applicability.