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These practitioner notes (P-Notes) are published by the Water Sector Board of the Sustainable Development Network of the World Bank Group. P-Notes are a synopsis of larger World Bank documents in the water sector.
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Climate Variability and Water Resources in Kenya : The Economic Cost of Inadequate Management(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2009-01) Mogaka, Hezron ; Gichere, Samuel ; Davis, Richard ; Hirji, RafikEighty percent of Kenya is arid and semi-arid land; yet despite chronic water scarcity, the country has developed only 15 percent of its available safe water resources. Demand for water is expected to rise, owing to population increases and growing requirements for irrigated agriculture, urban and rural populations, industries, livestock, and hydropower. Meanwhile, climate variability and the steady degradation of water resources cost Kenya at least 3.3 billion Kenyan shillings (Ksh) annually. Between 1997 and 2000, the El Nino-La Nina floods and droughts cost an estimated 290 billion Ksh, or 14 percent of gross domestic product (GDP) for the period. While it is not economical to avoid all costs, many of them can be minimized by increased investments in management and infrastructure, and more efficient, accountable, and participatory management and operation of the water sector.
Improving Water Security for Sustaining Livelihoods and Growth in Tanzania(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2009-01) Hirji, Rafik ; Davis, Richard ; Brown, Francis AtoThe Tanzania Water Resources Assistance Strategy (TWRAS) illustrates that food security, energy security, environmental security, health security, industrial security, and social and economic security all hinge directly or indirectly on water security. The cooperative management and development of rivers, lakes, and aquifers shared with other nations also have significant implications for national security. The TWRAS has guided the preparation of the second generation of the Bank's programmatic and sector wide investments, emphasizing improved linkages between programmatic elements. It argues for an integrated investment program supported by a more empowered, better resourced, and accountable governance regime. The strategy establishes that equitable and sustainable management and development of water resources is a fundamental prerequisite for achieving the outcomes of the national strategy for growth and reduction of poverty, which identifies the following intended poverty reduction outcomes: growth and reduction of income poverty; improved quality of life and social well-being; and good governance and accountability.
Engaging Local Private Operators in Water Supply and Sanitation Services(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2008-06) Triche, Thelma ; Requeno, Sixto ; Kariuki, MukamiPrograms to reform urban utilities and to engage the private sector have tended to focus on large cities and on transactions with large foreign private operators. This is changing, as smaller towns and cities are growing rapidly in many developing countries. Concurrently, decentralization is shifting responsibility for services from national to smaller entities that often cannot finance and manage them effectively. Paralleling this trend, new service models in which local private firms contract with local governments or community associations to provide water supply and sanitation (WSS) services have been proposed in smaller urban contexts. The author examined how these challenges are being addressed in eight World Bank projects in Cambodia, Colombia, Paraguay, the Philippines, and Uganda. In all five countries, the government has sought public-private partnerships to promote sustainability, increase access to services (particularly for the poor), and, except in Cambodia, strengthen the role of local government. All five countries have policies that encourage greater access to services by the poor, to the extent consistent with the paramount goal of financial viability. Investment subsidies, particularly those targeting the poor, have played an important role in all cases.
Managing Water Resources to Maximize Sustainable Growth : A World Bank Water Resources Assistance Strategy for Ethiopia(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2008-06) Sadoff, ClaudiaThis note contains a summary, for practitioners, of the World Bank Country Water Resources Assistance Strategy (CWRAS) report: it concerns managing water resources to maximize sustainable growth and focuses on World Bank water resources assistance strategy for Ethiopia (March 2006). Specifically, the note describes the scope and scale of the impacts of hydrological variability on Ethiopia's economic performance, poverty, natural resources, and socioeconomic conditions, and outlines the Bank's strategic approach to assisting water-related sectors in Ethiopia within an overall development strategy for the country.