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These practitioner notes (P-Notes) are published by the Water Sector Board of the Sustainable Development Network of the World Bank Group. P-Notes are a synopsis of larger World Bank documents in the water sector.
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Public-Private Partnerships to Reform Urban Water Utilities in Western and Central Africa(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2009-05) Fall, Matar ; Marin, Philippe ; Locussol, Alain ; Verspyck, RichardWestern and Central Africa have lengthy experience with public-private partnerships (PPPs), both for water supply and for combined power and water supply utilities. Cote d'Ivoire's successful PPP dates from 1959, and, over the last two decades, as many as 15 out of 23 countries in the region have experimented with PPPs. Eleven PPPs are studied here, and detailed performance indicators are reported for six large cases-Cote d'Ivoire, Senegal, Niger, Mali, Burkina Faso, and Gabon. These PPPs all have had at least four years of private operation. Through its successes and failures, the Western and Central African experience offers interesting lessons for other developing countries on how to improve the quality of urban water supply services, increase the efficiency of operations, and establish the financial credibility of the sector.
Climate Variability and Water Resources in Kenya : The Economic Cost of Inadequate Management(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2009-01) Mogaka, Hezron ; Gichere, Samuel ; Davis, Richard ; Hirji, RafikEighty percent of Kenya is arid and semi-arid land; yet despite chronic water scarcity, the country has developed only 15 percent of its available safe water resources. Demand for water is expected to rise, owing to population increases and growing requirements for irrigated agriculture, urban and rural populations, industries, livestock, and hydropower. Meanwhile, climate variability and the steady degradation of water resources cost Kenya at least 3.3 billion Kenyan shillings (Ksh) annually. Between 1997 and 2000, the El Nino-La Nina floods and droughts cost an estimated 290 billion Ksh, or 14 percent of gross domestic product (GDP) for the period. While it is not economical to avoid all costs, many of them can be minimized by increased investments in management and infrastructure, and more efficient, accountable, and participatory management and operation of the water sector.
Improving Water Security for Sustaining Livelihoods and Growth in Tanzania(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2009-01) Hirji, Rafik ; Davis, Richard ; Brown, Francis AtoThe Tanzania Water Resources Assistance Strategy (TWRAS) illustrates that food security, energy security, environmental security, health security, industrial security, and social and economic security all hinge directly or indirectly on water security. The cooperative management and development of rivers, lakes, and aquifers shared with other nations also have significant implications for national security. The TWRAS has guided the preparation of the second generation of the Bank's programmatic and sector wide investments, emphasizing improved linkages between programmatic elements. It argues for an integrated investment program supported by a more empowered, better resourced, and accountable governance regime. The strategy establishes that equitable and sustainable management and development of water resources is a fundamental prerequisite for achieving the outcomes of the national strategy for growth and reduction of poverty, which identifies the following intended poverty reduction outcomes: growth and reduction of income poverty; improved quality of life and social well-being; and good governance and accountability.
The Niger River Basin : A Vision for Sustainable Management(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2008-10) Andersen, Inger ; Dione, Ousmane ; Jarosewich-Holder, Martha ; Olivry, Jean-Claude ; Golitzen, Katherin GeorgeThe Niger River Basin Authority (NBA) brings together nine countries to promote integrated water resources management across political borders. The nine - Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Chad, Cote d'Ivoire, Guinea, Mali, Niger, and Nigeria have embraced a shared vision to build institutional capacity, political agreement, and public support for cooperation. The countries agree that sustainable management and development of the basin's water resources are necessary to meet natural and man-made threats to their shared resources, and that progress can be achieved by integrating technical data on the hydrology and geography of the river system with judicious political and economic policy. The Niger river basin, home to 100 million people, is a vital and complex asset of West and Central Africa. The continent's third-longest river, the Niger is more than just a source of water. For the people of the nine countries it is a source of identity, a route for migration and commerce, a source of conflict, and now a catalyst for cooperation. Niger, with about 23 percent of the Basin within its borders, depends on river navigation (through Nigeria) to reach the sea. Nigeria, a major food grower on rain-fed and irrigated land, is the final downstream country. Its borders enclose some 80 percent of the Basin's population and about 28 percent of its territory.