Arabic PDFs Available

379 items available

Permanent URI for this collection

The following titles are also available in Arabic. Click on the title link and look toward the bottom of the page to locate the PDFs that can be downloaded for that title.

Items in this collection

Now showing 1 - 9 of 9
Loading...
Thumbnail Image
Publication

Towards a National Jobs Strategy in Kuwait

2022, Ajwad, Mohamed Ihsan, Koettl, Johannes, Radwan, Ismail, Farole, Thomas, Sanchez-Reaza, Javier, Chartouni, Carole, Alaref, Jumana Jamal Subhi, Rivera, Nayib, Sundararaman, Venkatesh, Afif, Zeina, Dexter, Gharam Alkastalani, Ajwad, Mohamed Ihsan

This report is one of the main deliverables outlined in the legal arrangement of September 10, 2019, between the General Secretariat of the Supreme Council for Planning and Development (GS-SCPD) in Kuwait and the World Bank. A separate overview report is also available. The social contract in Kuwait is at risk. Kuwaiti citizens are used to the state providing public sector jobs, free education, free healthcare, and subsidized fuel to all citizens. These benefits have been bought and paid for using Kuwait’s oil revenues, however, the sustainability of the social contract has been questioned by three mutually reinforcing challenges. First, oil demand is projected to steadily decline the next few decades. This decline is partly the result of changing consumer preferences away from carbon-based fuel sources, and partly the result of increasingly cost-effective alternative energy sources becoming available. Second, with mounting fiscal deficits, the size of the wage bill for the government is a growing concern. Third, the needs in the labor market will continue to grow as Kuwait’s population is young and growing. Central to these structural challenges are challenges to Kuwait’s labor market. A growing number of young Kuwaitis are entering the labor market with high expectations of well-paid, secure, public sector jobs. In the private sector, employers are dependent on low-cost and largely unskilled foreign workers. The 2019 COVID-19 global pandemic, which has led to an oil price crisis and a global economic slowdown, has intensified the debate surrounding jobs challenges in Kuwait. These jobs challenges need to be addressed to ensure the sustainability of the economic growth model and avoid major social disruption. The government has asked The World Bank for assistance to formulate a National Jobs Strategy to help confront these challenges, based on evidence and best practices. Reforms are recommended in four areas, or pillars: (i) make the public sector more sustainable, (ii) improve human capital, (iii) support private sector growth, and (iv) build a social protection system. In addition, the jobs strategy covers two cross-cutting themes: behavioral economics, and monitoring and evaluation, also embedded in the four pillars. This introduction briefly explains the critical challenges facing Kuwait that require substantial changes in policy. The subsequent sections analyze the major issues of these four topics, with recommendations for policy change to improve sustainability and enhance incomes.

Loading...
Thumbnail Image
Publication

Opening Remarks During the Media Call on the Analytical Chapters of the June 2020 Global Economic Prospects Report

2020-06-02, Malpass, David

These opening remarks were delivered by World Bank Group President David Malpass during the media call on the analytical chapters of the June 2020 global economic prospects report on June 2, 2020. He covered about Bank's support activities, the debt service moratorium for the poorest countries, the progress on debt transparency and some of the next steps. He spoke about how the World Bank Group resources are being scaled up dramatically, providing strong net positive flows, especially to the poorest countries. He highlighted on IDA and IBRD working with countries to expand the coverage of social safety net programs, IFC providing finances to the private sector in developing countries over fifteen months, and MIGA helping to provide a more stable environment for investment by mitigating and managing risks arising from uncertainty. He described the debt moratorium that the World Bank and IMF championed, where the Debt service payments by all official bilateral creditors were suspended on May 1, adding to the potential resources for the poorest countries. He stated that an important part of this initiative is to help governments in debtor countries increase the transparency of their debt and investment practices and disclose the amounts and terms of their debt. He spoke about the Global Economic Prospects (GEP) report which finds a deep global recession, accompanied by a collapse in global trade, tourism and commodity prices and extraordinary market volatility. He said that beyond coping with the immediate crisis to limit the harm, policymakers can make a robust recovery more likely by maintaining private sector systems and infrastructure and allowing markets to allocate resources toward productive activities. He stated that most of the export restrictions that were announced earlier this year have not been implemented and global food prices have mostly remained stable. He highlighted on the important advances that are being made in digital connectivity in developing economies. He concluded by saying that the World Bank Group will continue to take broad, fast action in our response to the needs of people in developing countries.

Loading...
Thumbnail Image
Publication

World Development Report 2019: The Changing Nature of Work

2019, World Bank

Work is constantly reshaped by technological progress. New ways of production are adopted, markets expand, and societies evolve. But some changes provoke more attention than others, in part due to the vast uncertainty involved in making predictions about the future. The 2019 World Development Report will study how the nature of work is changing as a result of advances in technology today. Technological progress disrupts existing systems. A new social contract is needed to smooth the transition and guard against rising inequality. Significant investments in human capital throughout a person’s lifecycle are vital to this effort. If workers are to stay competitive against machines they need to train or retool existing skills. A social protection system that includes a minimum basic level of protection for workers and citizens can complement new forms of employment. Improved private sector policies to encourage startup activity and competition can help countries compete in the digital age. Governments also need to ensure that firms pay their fair share of taxes, in part to fund this new social contract. The 2019 World Development Report presents an analysis of these issues based upon the available evidence.

Loading...
Thumbnail Image
Publication

Unlocking Sustainable Private Sector Growth in the Middle East and North Africa: Evidence from the Enterprise Survey

2022, World Bank, European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, European Investment Bank

Economic growth in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) has been weak since the global financial crisis of 2007-09 and the Arab Spring of the early 2010s. Achieving higher and sustainable growth is particularly important in view of other economic challenges facing the region: public debt in MENA countries has increased considerably over the last decade, accompanied by declining investment. This report seeks to understand what lies beneath that relatively slow growth, with a particular focus on the reasons for stagnating productivity and inadequate accumulation of human capital and physical capital in the region’s private sector. To this end, the report summarizes the main findings from nine background papers based on enterprise survey data. It also draws conclusions for policy, not only for promoting stronger firm performance, but also for addressing the challenge of climate change by pursuing sustainable growth.

Loading...
Thumbnail Image
Publication

Protecting People and Economies: Integrated Policy Responses to COVID-19

2020-05, World Bank

The COVID-19 pandemic has unleashed a global health emergency and an unprecedented economic crisis of historic magnitude. Governments facing this threat are in uncharted territory, but three policy priorities addressed in this note are clear. Disease containment is a first-order concern to combat the pandemic, and measures such as testing and tracing, coupled with isolating and treating the infected can bring first-order gains. The economic crisis requires a parallel and simultaneous effort to save jobs, protect income, and ensure access to services for vulnerable populations. As governments act to slow the pandemic and protect lives and livelihoods now, they will need to maintain macro stability, continue to build trust, and communicate clearly to avoid deeper downturns and social unrest. Looking forward, this crisis can be an opportunity to rethink policy to build back with stronger systems for people and economies.

Loading...
Thumbnail Image
Publication

The Human Capital Project

2018-10-11, World Bank

By improving their skills, health, knowledge, and resilience—their human capital—people can be more productive, flexible, and innovative. Human capital is a central driver of sustainable growth and poverty reduction. Investments in human capital have become more important as the nature of work has evolved. Yet despite substantial progress, significant gaps in human capital investments are leaving the world poorly prepared for what lies ahead. The World Bank Group has launched the Human Capital Project (HCP) to mobilize efforts to address these gaps. The project is intended to raise awareness of the costs of inaction and make the case for investing in people through country engagement and analytical work. The goal of the HCP is a world in which all children arrive at school ready to learn, the time spent in school translates into better learning, and they can grow up to live and work as healthy, skilled, and productive adults. The main text of this volume—which also appears as chapter 3 in the 2019 World Development Report: The Changing Nature of Work —describes the evidence supporting the importance of human capital for people, economies, and societies and lays out the rationale and context for the HCP’s theory of change. The Human Capital Index methodology is detailed in the appendix.

Loading...
Thumbnail Image
Publication

The World Bank Annual Report 2022: Helping Countries Adapt to a Changing World

2022, World Bank

The Annual Report is prepared by the Executive Directors of the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) and the International Development Association (IDA)--collectively known as the World Bank--in accordance with the by-laws of the two institutions. The President of the IBRD and IDA and the Chairman of the Board of Executive Directors submit the Report, together with the accompanying administrative budgets and audited financial statements, to the Board of Governors.

Loading...
Thumbnail Image
Publication

Expectations and Aspirations: A New Framework for Education in the Middle East and North Africa

2020, El-Kogali, Safaa El Tayeb, Yarrow, Noah, El-Kogali, Safaa El Tayeb, Krafft, Caroline, Adil, Mariam Nusrat, Audah, Mohammed, Bend, May, Capek, Maja, Demas, Angela, Gregory, Laura, Kheyfets, Igor, Music, Almedina, Towfighian, Samira Nikaein, Prouty, Bob, Quota, Manal Bakur N., Salmi, Jamil, Sedmik, Elisabeth, Sundararaman, Venkatesh, Wang, Lianqin, Yarrow, Noah

Education has a large untapped potential to contribute to human capital, well-being, and wealth in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA). It had been at the heart of the region’s history and civilizations for centuries. The region invested heavily in education for decades but has not been able to reap the benefits of its investments. Despite series of reforms, the region remained stuck in a low learning – low skills level. There are four key sets of tensions that are holding back education in the MENA region. These tensions: Credentials and skills, discipline and inquiry, control and autonomy, and tradition and modernity are shaped by society and are reflected in schools and classrooms. If not addressed, MENA will continue to operate below its potential. Addressing these tensions and unleashing the potential of education requires a new framework with a three-pronged approach: A concerted push for learning that starts early for all children regardless of background, with qualified and motivated educators that leverages technology and uses modern approaches and monitors learning. It also requires a stronger pull for skills by all stakeholders in the labor market and society and involves coordinated multi-system reforms within and outside the education system. Finally, it requires a new pact for education at a national level with a unified vision, shared responsibilities and accountabilities. Education is everyone’s business and not just the responsibility of the education system. The push, pull, pact framework offers an opportunity for the MENA region to charge forward and reclaim its heritage of a learned region and meet the expectations and aspirations of its people. The current situation in MENA requires a renewed focus on education not just as a national priority for economic growth and social development but as a national emergency for stability, peace and prosperity.

Loading...
Thumbnail Image
Publication

An Exposition of the New Strategy, 'Promoting Peace and Stability in the Middle East and North Africa'

2016-01, Devarajan, Shantayanan

The Middle East and North Africa region is in turmoil. Syria, Iraq, Libya and Yemen are in civil war, causing untold damage to human lives and physical infrastructure. Fifteen million people have fled their homes, many to fragile or economically strapped countries such as Jordan, Lebanon, Djibouti and Tunisia, giving rise to the biggest refugee crisis since World War II. Palestinians are reeling from deadly attacks and blockades. With recruits from all over the world, radicalized terrorist groups and sectarian factions like Daesh are spreading violence around the globe, threatening some governments' ability to perform basic functions. Countries undergoing political transitions, such as Egypt, Tunisia, Morocco and Jordan, face periodic attacks and political unrest, leading them to address security concerns over inclusive growth. Even relatively peaceful oil exporters, such as Algeria, Iran and the GCC, are grappling with youth unemployment and poor-quality public services, the same problems that contributed to the Arab Spring, alongside low oil prices. Finally, the author will develop and monitor input indicators that are consistent with the theory of change associated with the new strategy. We will have indicators that show whether our interventions are helping to renew the social contract (the use of citizen engagement in projects is an example). Household surveys can tell us whether the welfare of refugees and host communities is improving. Preparedness indicators can be used to inform progress on the recovery and reconstruction pillar. And standard indicators such as the share of electricity production that is traded will be used for the regional integration pillar.