Items in this collection
Now showing 1 - 4 of 4
Publication(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2020-12) World BankClimate change is a grave threat to global development and shared prosperity. Its impacts are expected to intensify even as the world responds to the Coronavirus (COVID-19) crisis. The poor and most vulnerable will be the worst affected. Climate change poses particularly difficult challenges for policy makers. It demands action across all sectors of the economy and across all of society. Action to address climate change requires coordination among multiple governmental and nongovernmental stakeholders. The extended time frame over which climate change unfolds requires a capability to plan, implement, and sustain a credible commitment to increasingly ambitious policies over multiple political cycles. To address these challenges, countries need effective institutions. National framework legislation on climate change can help put these institutions in place. It can enshrine stable and ambitious targets, create mechanisms for realizing these targets, and ensure proper oversight and accountability. The authors hope the twelve key principles for framework legislation laid out in this guide will contribute to building back better by helping countries to lay a solid foundation for climate-smart development that creates new jobs and markets, boosts economic growth, and provides a safer, cleaner environment for all.
Publication(Washington, DC, 2013-11) World BankThis report presents the World Bank Group's experience in climate and disaster resilient development and contends that it is essential to eliminate extreme poverty and achieve shared prosperity by 2030. The report argues for closer collaboration between the climate resilience and disaster risk management communities through the incorporation of climate and disaster resilience into broader development processes. Selected case studies are used to illustrate promising approaches, lessons learned, and remaining challenges all in contribution to the loss and damage discussions under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). The introduction provides an overview of the UNFCCC and also introduces key concepts and definitions relevant to climate and disaster resilient development. Section two describes the impacts of globally increasing weather-related disasters in recent decades. Section three summarizes how the World Bank Group's goals to end extreme poverty and boost shared prosperity are expected to be affected by rising disaster losses in a changing climate. Section four discusses the issue of attribution in weather-related disasters, and the additional start-up costs involved in climate and disaster resilient development. Section five builds upon the processes and instruments developed by the climate resilience and the disaster risk management communities of practice to provide some early lessons learned in this increasingly merging field. Section six highlights case studies and emerging good practices in climate and disaster resilient development. Section seven concludes the report, summarizing key lessons learned and identifying potential gaps and avenues for future work.
Publication(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2013-10) World Bank ; International Cryosphere Climate InitiativeClimate change is happening faster and in a dramatically more visible way in the Earth's cryosphere than anywhere else on earth. Cryosphere is defined as elements of the Earth system containing water in its frozen state. The average temperature has risen here at over twice the global mean in the Arctic, Antarctic Peninsula, and much of the Himalayas and other mountain regions. This report summarizes the changes already being observed in the following five major cryosphere regions: the Andes, Antarctica, Arctic, East African Highlands, and the Himalayas. It then provides a science-based assessment of the impact of addressing methane and black carbon to reduce the risk to the global environment and human societies, especially for the most vulnerable populations. Chapter 2 provides a comprehensive assessment of the changes occurring in these five regions, based on the most recent literature, including the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (2013). Chapter 3 describes the pollution and climate nexus and the evolving knowledge of how methane and black carbon impact climate specifically in cryosphere regions. Chapter 4 presents the background and methods used for new modeling work conducted as part of this study, building extensively the United Nations Environment Programme/World Meteorological Organization Integrated Assessment of Black Carbon and Ozone (2010). Chapter 5 presents the results of the new modeling in these five major cryosphere regions as well as globally for health, crop impacts, and climate. Finally, Chapter 6 discusses the implications and new directions for the cryosphere regions emerging from these modeling results.
Publication(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2013) Kojima, MasamiBetween 2003 and 2012 the average annual world prices of gasoline, diesel, and kerosene in 160 countries more than doubled, while the prices of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) used for cooking and heating increased by two-thirds. Between January 2009 and January 2013, many countries did not pass through increases in world oil product prices to domestic consumers. The median pass-through for gasoline and diesel increased with income and was less than two-thirds in low- income countries. High-income countries had larger median pass-through coefficients than any other income group. For kerosene, the median pass-through was full in upper-middle-income countries, but half in low and lower-middle-income countries. Among developing countries, the median pass-through for LPG was highest in low-income countries. More generally, about two thirds of the study countries have kept domestic prices below market-based levels for one or more fuels in the past three years, subsidizing consumers. In every case the government pays directly-or indirectly through budgetary transfers, tax expenditures, or lower corporate tax collection due to financial losses suffered by oil companies. Many countries have universal price subsidies, widely acknowledged to be regressive. Quite a few have subsidies targeting certain consumer categories, most notably kerosene and LPG for households. Targeted subsidies for oil products have large leakages (such as diversion and smuggling) because, unlike electricity or natural gas, liquid fuels are easy to store and transport. Differentiating prices for the same oil product by user category creates powerful financial incentives to divert lower-priced fuels to users ineligible for the price discounts. Typical recipients of such targeted price subsidies are households (kerosene or LPG for cooking, lighting, and heating), transport operators, farmers, and fishermen. Although prices of kerosene and diesel are close on the world market, many governments price kerosene below diesel in the name of protecting non-electrified households that use kerosene for cooking, lighting, and heating. Government transparency is important regarding the agency in charge of pricing, the scope of its regulatory power, how prices are set, the criteria for price adjustments, the price breakdown, the magnitude of under-or-over recoveries, and the stakeholders being consulted.