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PublicationThe World Bank Annual Report 2021: From Crisis to Green, Resilient, and Inclusive Recovery(Washington, DC: World Bank, 2021-10-01) World BankThe Annual Report is prepared by the Executive Directors of the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) and the International Development Association (IDA)--collectively known as the World Bank--in accordance with the by-laws of the two institutions. The President of the IBRD and IDA and the Chairman of the Board of Executive Directors submits the Report, together with the accompanying administrative budgets and audited financial statements, to the Board of Governors. PublicationUHC in Africa: A Framework for Action(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2016-08) World BankMany countries in Africa still contend with high levels of child and maternal mortality, malnutrition is far too common, and most health systems are not able to deal effectively with epidemics and the growing burden of chronic diseases. These challenges call for renewed commitments and accelerated progress toward Universal Health Coverage (UHC). Besides the moral argument that it is not acceptable that some members of society should face death, disability, ill health or impoverishment for reasons that could be addressed at limited cost, UHC is a good investment. Prevention of malnutrition and ill health is likely to have enormous benefits in terms of longer and more productive lives, higher earnings, and averted care costs. Effectively meeting demand for family planning will accelerate the fertility transition, which in turn will result in higher rates of economic growth and more rapid poverty reduction. And strong health and disease surveillance systems halt epidemics that take lives and disrupt economies. PublicationTurn Down the Heat : Confronting the New Climate Normal(Washington, DC: World Bank, 2014-11-23) World Bank GroupThis report focuses on the risks of climate change to development in Latin America and the Caribbean, the Middle East and North Africa, and parts of Europe and Central Asia. Building on earlier Turn Down the Heat reports, this new scientific analysis examines the likely impacts of present day (0.8°C), 2°C and 4°C warming above pre-industrial temperatures on agricultural production, water resources, ecosystem services, and coastal vulnerability for affected populations. Data show that dramatic climate changes, heat, and weather extremes are already impacting people, damaging crops and coastlines, and putting food, water, and energy security at risk. Across the three regions studied in this report, record-breaking temperatures are occurring more frequently, rainfall has increased in intensity in some places, while drought-prone regions are getting dryer. The poor and underprivileged, as well as the elderly and children, are found to be hit the hardest. There is growing evidence that even with very ambitious mitigation action, warming close to 1.5°C above pre-industrial levels by mid-century is already locked into the Earth’s atmospheric system, and climate change impacts such as extreme heat events may now be unavoidable. If the planet continues warming to 4°C, climatic conditions, heat, and other weather extremes considered highly unusual or unprecedented today would become the new climate normal—a world of increased risks and instability. The consequences for development would be severe as crop yields decline, water resources change, diseases move into new ranges, and sea levels rise. The task of promoting human development, ending poverty, increasing global prosperity, and reducing global inequality will be very challenging in a 2°C world, but in a 4°C world there is serious doubt whether this can be achieved at all. Immediate steps are needed to help countries adapt to the climate impacts being felt today and the unavoidable consequences of a rapidly warming world. The benefits of strong, early action on climate change -- action that follows clean, low carbon pathways and avoids locking in unsustainable growth strategies -- far outweigh the costs. Many of the worst projected climate impacts could still be avoided by holding warming to below 2°C. But the time to act is now. PublicationMIGA Annual Report 2012(Washington, DC: World Bank, 2012-10) Multilateral Investment Guarantee AgencyIn fiscal year 2012, a total issue of $2.7 billion in guarantees for projects in Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency's (MIGA's) developing member countries and an additional $10.6 million was issued under MIGA administered trust funds. This is another record high for new issuance by the Agency, the second consecutive year of this trend, and was marked by increased regional and sectoral diversification. Fifty-eight percent of projects guaranteed, accounting for 70 percent of the total volume of new coverage, address at least one of MIGA's four strategic priority areas. Fiscal year 2012 also marks the fifth consecutive year of record levels in the Agency's gross portfolio. MIGA issued $2.7 billion in guarantees in support of investments in developing countries. The Agency welcomed two new members, Niger and South Sudan, during the fiscal year. This report highlights MIGA's active support for these objectives in fiscal year 2012. It demonstrates the Agency's ability to deliver on its mandate to promote foreign direct investment into developing countries to support economic growth, reduce poverty, and improve people's lives. As the global investment environment becomes increasingly volatile, and MIGA's clients look for opportunities in frontier markets, there is greater interest in political risk-mitigation mechanisms. MIGA has positioned itself well to respond to these developments especially as a result of its stronger field presence and internal reforms over the last two years. MIGA is committed to promoting projects that promise a strong development impact and are economically, environmentally, and socially sustainable. MIGA's projects this past year demonstrate this focus in a wide range of sectors, across all regions. In fiscal year 2012 the Agency's projects in the region accounted for 24 percent of volume, twice the level of the previous year.