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Unlocking Sustainable Private Sector Growth in the Middle East and North Africa: Evidence from the Enterprise Survey(Luxembourg City: European Investment Bank; London: European Bank for Reconstruction and Development; Washington, DC: World Bank, 2022) World Bank ; European Bank for Reconstruction and Development ; European Investment BankEconomic growth in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) has been weak since the global financial crisis of 2007-09 and the Arab Spring of the early 2010s. Achieving higher and sustainable growth is particularly important in view of other economic challenges facing the region: public debt in MENA countries has increased considerably over the last decade, accompanied by declining investment. This report seeks to understand what lies beneath that relatively slow growth, with a particular focus on the reasons for stagnating productivity and inadequate accumulation of human capital and physical capital in the region’s private sector. To this end, the report summarizes the main findings from nine background papers based on enterprise survey data. It also draws conclusions for policy, not only for promoting stronger firm performance, but also for addressing the challenge of climate change by pursuing sustainable growth.
Women, Business and the Law 2020(Washington, DC: World Bank, 2020-01-14) World BankWomen, Business and the Law 2020, the sixth edition in a series, analyzes laws and regulations affecting women’s economic inclusion in 190 economies. The Women, Business and the Law Index, composed by eight indicators structured around women’s interactions with the law as they begin, progress through and end their careers, aligns different areas of the law with the economic decisions women make at various stages of their lives. The indicators are: Mobility, Workplace, Pay, Marriage, Parenthood, Entrepreneurship, Assets, and Pension. The report updates all indicators as of September 1, 2019, and builds evidence around the linkages between legal gender equality and women’s economic inclusion. By examining the economic decisions women make as they go through different stages of their working lives and the pace of reforms over the past 2 years, Women, Business and the Law makes an important contribution to research and policy discussions about the state of women’s economic opportunities and empowerment. While celebrating the progress made, the data and analysis emphasize the work still to be done to ensure economic empowerment for all.