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    The World Bank Annual Report 2022: Helping Countries Adapt to a Changing World
    (Washington, DC : World Bank, 2022) World Bank
    The Annual Report is prepared by the Executive Directors of the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) and the International Development Association (IDA)--collectively known as the World Bank--in accordance with the by-laws of the two institutions. The President of the IBRD and IDA and the Chairman of the Board of Executive Directors submit the Report, together with the accompanying administrative budgets and audited financial statements, to the Board of Governors.
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    The World Bank Annual Report 2021: From Crisis to Green, Resilient, and Inclusive Recovery
    (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2021-10-01) World Bank
    The Annual Report is prepared by the Executive Directors of the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) and the International Development Association (IDA)--collectively known as the World Bank--in accordance with the by-laws of the two institutions. The President of the IBRD and IDA and the Chairman of the Board of Executive Directors submits the Report, together with the accompanying administrative budgets and audited financial statements, to the Board of Governors.
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    Towards a More Inclusive Economy: Understanding the Barriers Sudanese Women and Youth Face in Accessing Employment Opportunities
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2021-01) Etang, Alvin ; Lundvall, Jonna ; Osman, Eiman ; Wistrand, Jennifer
    The report is organized as follows. After a brief description of the analytical framing and methodology in section two, section three presents the history and demographics of the labor market in Sudan, focusing on indicators by gender and age across the three main sectors of employment: services, agriculture, and industry. Section four examines formal institutions: the institutional setting, service delivery, and laws and regulations as they relate to economic opportunities. Section five examines informal institutions, where the social norms and networks can be a barrier to women’s and youth’s full economic participation. Section six analyzes how the market is supporting or constraining economic activity, which includes a closer look at the labor market itself and access to assets. Section seven discusses how all of these aspects are considered when it comes to the household- and individual-level decision-making that directly affects women’s and youth’s accumulation of human capital, overall agency, and, ultimately, their economic opportunities. Section eight concludes with considerations for policy and action.
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    Remarks at the Mobilizing with Africa II Event
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2020-10-09) Malpass, David
    David Malpass, President of the World Bank, remarked that the Coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic and global recession are wiping out more than a decade of poverty alleviation. He focused on crisis response and supporting recovery.
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    UHC in Africa: A Framework for Action
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2016-08) World Bank
    Many countries in Africa still contend with high levels of child and maternal mortality, malnutrition is far too common, and most health systems are not able to deal effectively with epidemics and the growing burden of chronic diseases. These challenges call for renewed commitments and accelerated progress toward Universal Health Coverage (UHC). Besides the moral argument that it is not acceptable that some members of society should face death, disability, ill health or impoverishment for reasons that could be addressed at limited cost, UHC is a good investment. Prevention of malnutrition and ill health is likely to have enormous benefits in terms of longer and more productive lives, higher earnings, and averted care costs. Effectively meeting demand for family planning will accelerate the fertility transition, which in turn will result in higher rates of economic growth and more rapid poverty reduction. And strong health and disease surveillance systems halt epidemics that take lives and disrupt economies.
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    Turn Down the Heat : Confronting the New Climate Normal
    (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2014-11-23) World Bank Group
    This report focuses on the risks of climate change to development in Latin America and the Caribbean, the Middle East and North Africa, and parts of Europe and Central Asia. Building on earlier Turn Down the Heat reports, this new scientific analysis examines the likely impacts of present day (0.8°C), 2°C and 4°C warming above pre-industrial temperatures on agricultural production, water resources, ecosystem services, and coastal vulnerability for affected populations. Data show that dramatic climate changes, heat, and weather extremes are already impacting people, damaging crops and coastlines, and putting food, water, and energy security at risk. Across the three regions studied in this report, record-breaking temperatures are occurring more frequently, rainfall has increased in intensity in some places, while drought-prone regions are getting dryer. The poor and underprivileged, as well as the elderly and children, are found to be hit the hardest. There is growing evidence that even with very ambitious mitigation action, warming close to 1.5°C above pre-industrial levels by mid-century is already locked into the Earth’s atmospheric system, and climate change impacts such as extreme heat events may now be unavoidable. If the planet continues warming to 4°C, climatic conditions, heat, and other weather extremes considered highly unusual or unprecedented today would become the new climate normal—a world of increased risks and instability. The consequences for development would be severe as crop yields decline, water resources change, diseases move into new ranges, and sea levels rise. The task of promoting human development, ending poverty, increasing global prosperity, and reducing global inequality will be very challenging in a 2°C world, but in a 4°C world there is serious doubt whether this can be achieved at all. Immediate steps are needed to help countries adapt to the climate impacts being felt today and the unavoidable consequences of a rapidly warming world. The benefits of strong, early action on climate change -- action that follows clean, low carbon pathways and avoids locking in unsustainable growth strategies -- far outweigh the costs. Many of the worst projected climate impacts could still be avoided by holding warming to below 2°C. But the time to act is now.
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    Mauritania : Counting on Natural Wealth for a Sustainable Future
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2014-05) Mele, Gianluca
    A data set of key macro-sustainability indicators, constructed after several fact-finding missions, and World Bank methodologies on estimating wealth accounting are used to study Mauritania's wealth, which is estimated to be between USD50 and USD60 billion. The country's produced wealth represents roughly 12 percent of total wealth, much less than in lower-middle-income countries; by contrast, natural wealth represents approximately 45 percent of the total figure. Renewable resources account for slightly less than two-thirds of natural wealth, with fisheries alone equaling about one-fourth of natural wealth. This is good news for Mauritania, as sound management of these resources may ensure a constant flow of resources in the future and therefore -- with adequate policies -- the achievement of the same or higher levels of welfare for future generations. On the negative side, however, the ratio of net adjusted savings over gross national income is estimated to have been negative since 2006, meaning that the wealth of the country is being depleted. Mauritania has recently joined the ranks of lower-middle-income countries, largely thanks to its considerable natural resources endowment. Over time the mining sector's contribution to gross domestic product has grown significantly and important discoveries continue to be made. The overarching objective of this wealth accounting exercise is thus to support Mauritania to measure its assets better and achieve a more complete picture of the prospects for future income, with a view to better orienting public policies toward sustainable growth and shared prosperity. The paper concludes with several indicative policy recommendations.
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    MIGA Annual Report 2012
    (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2012-10) Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency
    In fiscal year 2012, a total issue of $2.7 billion in guarantees for projects in Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency's (MIGA's) developing member countries and an additional $10.6 million was issued under MIGA administered trust funds. This is another record high for new issuance by the Agency, the second consecutive year of this trend, and was marked by increased regional and sectoral diversification. Fifty-eight percent of projects guaranteed, accounting for 70 percent of the total volume of new coverage, address at least one of MIGA's four strategic priority areas. Fiscal year 2012 also marks the fifth consecutive year of record levels in the Agency's gross portfolio. MIGA issued $2.7 billion in guarantees in support of investments in developing countries. The Agency welcomed two new members, Niger and South Sudan, during the fiscal year. This report highlights MIGA's active support for these objectives in fiscal year 2012. It demonstrates the Agency's ability to deliver on its mandate to promote foreign direct investment into developing countries to support economic growth, reduce poverty, and improve people's lives. As the global investment environment becomes increasingly volatile, and MIGA's clients look for opportunities in frontier markets, there is greater interest in political risk-mitigation mechanisms. MIGA has positioned itself well to respond to these developments especially as a result of its stronger field presence and internal reforms over the last two years. MIGA is committed to promoting projects that promise a strong development impact and are economically, environmentally, and socially sustainable. MIGA's projects this past year demonstrate this focus in a wide range of sectors, across all regions. In fiscal year 2012 the Agency's projects in the region accounted for 24 percent of volume, twice the level of the previous year.
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    Sudan - Public Expenditure Tracking Survey (PETS) : Case Study of the Health Sector
    (Washington, DC, 2011-12) World Bank
    The Sudan referendum on post-Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) arrangements was held during January 9-15, 2011 with results in favor of secession of the South by July 9, 2011. The economic effects will transmit largely through the fiscal and external accounts and the outcome of secession negotiations will determine the post-CPA economic landscape. The secession outcome will likely put significant strain on economic stability in the North. The PETS study is organized as follows: chapter two presents the objectives of the study, and the survey methodology and sampling size. Chapter three focuses on the specific developments of budget data (functional classification) in the Northern States. The chapter sheds some light on revenues and expenditure in Northern States and also zooms into the specific responsibilities transferred to the states. Towards the end, the chapter addresses the budgets specifically of the six states that have been sampled for the study (in a purposive sample). Chapter four is the heart of the study and is based on the flow of funds analysis underlying the PET survey. It starts out with addressing the question on 'who' finances the health sector. With this it gives a good account of the decentralized nature of health services, which is a prerequisite to actually track public spending through the system. Chapter five explores the interconnections between public expenditure and service delivery in Sudan and tries to assess the effectiveness of public spending in contributing to the quality of health services. Chapter six concludes with a highlight of the findings and possible policy options. Annex one provides six short extracts of the main findings and conclusions for each state as additional case studies.