Items in this collection
PublicationTransforming Adversity into Opportunity: How Resilience Can Promote Quality Education Amidst Conflict and Violence(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2013-05) Reyes, JoelThis Education Note concerns education systems in countries at all levels of development increasingly need to manage the challenges of crisis, conflict, and violence. For more than 40 years, research into resilience has sought to understand how positive outcomes, such as mental and physical health, positive interpersonal relations, socially acceptable behavior, academic success, etc., can result across a wide range of adverse conditions. In the field of education, resilience studies provide evidence that many students succeed academically despite adverse economic conditions, homelessness and transitory situations, violence, and conflict-affected social exclusion. Resilience matters in education because learning and school success are not only possible in spite of adversity, but also education can be the vehicle to overcome it. PublicationTowards an Operationalization of Resilience in Education Systems: Identifying, Protecting and Using Assets in Education Communities(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2013-05) Reyes, JoelThis Education Note presents the findings from the first four Education Resilience Approaches (ERA) pilots from the countries of Rwanda, South Sudan, Honduras, and the UNRWA system in West Bank, Gaza, and Jordan. The findings illustrate the facets of education resilience and how it can be fostered. Education resilience involves identifying risks and assets, protecting the assets in schools and communities, and aligning education system commitment to a resilience approach. Resilience matters in education because learning and school success are not only possible in spite of adversity, but also education can be the vehicle to overcome it. PublicationMeasuring Learning : How Effective Student Assessment Systems Can Help Achieve Learning for All(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2012-02) Clarke, MargueriteThe importance of learning assessment is linked to growing evidence that learning drives prosperity. Research finds a one standard deviation increase in scores on international assessments of reading and mathematics is associated with a 2 percent point increase in annual growth rates of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita (Hanushek and Woessmann, 2007). This brief includes the following headings: challenges to assessing student learning; what do assessment systems look like?; Effective assessment systems; and reference. PublicationLearning from the Best : Improving Learning Through Effective Teacher Policies(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2012-02) Vegas, Emiliana; Ganimian, Alejandro; Jaimovich, AnaliaAn education system is only as good as its teachers. Both developed and developing countries have increasingly become concerned with increasing the effectiveness of their teachers. Successful education systems achieve the eight SABER-Teacher teacher policy goals in different ways, but they all produce superior student and teacher performance. The World Bank has studied top-performing systems. These systems are particularly effective at attracting the best individuals to the teaching profession and preparing them exceptionally. Once teachers enter the profession, the system grants them ample discretion to decide how to best achieve superior student performance and focuses on supporting them rather than trying to steer them in any particular direction. Finland provides a good example of this type of system. These systems also place considerable trust in teachers. Such systems are built on the notion that excellent teaching is not the responsibility of a single instructor, but rather, of the profession as a whole. Thus, they institute mechanisms that foster collaboration and encourage teachers to hold their peers accountable for the quality of their work. Shanghai, China, offers a good example of this type of system. These systems exert tight control over teachers' daily work in the classroom. They provide teachers with detailed guidelines, closely monitor the execution of these guidelines, and use multiple incentives to reward outstanding teaching. At the same time, accountability mechanisms tackle poor teacher effort and performance. PublicationEducation Finance : It's How, Not Simply How Much, That Counts(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2012-02) Vegas, Emiliana; Coffin, ChelseaThe precise relationship between spending and learning outcomes in education is unknown, which leads some researchers and policy makers to question whether the amount of spending in education matters at all (Hanushek 1986). Among countries with similar levels of income, those that spend more on education do not necessarily score higher on international assessments such as the Program for International Student Assessment (PISA). Even within an education system, student achievement varies among localities that spend comparable amounts (Wag staff and Wang 2011). The observation that learning outcomes are seemingly unrelated to spending levels supports the argument that how money is spent, not simply how much, matters in education finance. Education spending represents the point at which monetary resources begin to promote learning outcomes. National, subnational, and local governments; the private sector; and sometimes even international actors may spend money on public education. Fiscal control mechanisms are crucial for understanding education finance systems; they are used to plan, monitor, and execute a country's education budget. If resources are not used for their intended purpose, it is unlikely that education services will be of adequate quality. PublicationEFA and Beyond : Service Provision and Quality Assurance in China(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2005-07) Wang, YidanChina is not often thought of in the Education-for-all (EFA) context but its education sector over the past 20 years provides many lessons for countries that are approaching Universal Primary Education (UPE). The most important lesson may be that the need for educational reform does not diminish as countries approach UPE. The first challenge is to expand education opportunities. As coverage expands, however, new challenges inevitably emerge that require constant attention and frequent updates to education policy and financing mechanisms. PublicationIn Their Own Language : Education for All(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2005-06) Bender, Penelope; Dutcher, Nadine; Klaus, David; Shore, Jane; Tesar, CharlieFifty percent of the world's out-of-school children live in communities where the language of schooling is rarely, if ever, used at home. This paper discusses the benefits of use of first language instruction. The results of benefits from first language instruction discussed are: increased access and equity; improved learning outcomes; reduced repetition and dropout rates; socio-cultural benefits and lower overall costs. The paper outlines why many countries have been reluctant to deliver basic education in local languages. It also gives lessons learned on: policy formulation around language of instruction issues; bilingual programs; and management of the policy environment of language reforms. PublicationDecentralizing Education in Guatemala : School Management by Local Communities(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2005-02) Rojas, Carlos; Valerio, Alexandria; Demas, AngelaGuatemala set out in 1992 to increase access to education in remote areas. Its National Community-managed Program for Educational Development (PRONADE) has evolved from a small, innovative pilot program in 19 rural communities, to a nationwide program reaching over 4,100 communities and 445,000 children. PRONADE is one of the most proactive managerial, administrative, and financial decentralization measures taken in Latin America. Isolated rural communities have been truly empowered to administer and manage the schools. Following are some remaining challenges to be resolved for PRONADE continued success : quality issues and students learning outcomes must be dealt more systematically; PRONADE teachers have not received consistent training in multi-grade and bilingual classroom practices; impact evaluation are needed to determine how PRONADE is affecting student achievement, repetition, and drop-out rates, as well as teacher effectiveness; finally, there have been frequent delays in payment of teacher salaries, as well as transfer of funds for school snacks, educational and teaching materials.