Equitable Growth, Finance & Institutions Insight
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Institutional and Procurement Practice Note on Cloud Computing: Cloud Assessment Framework and Evaluation Methodology(Washington DC, 2023-03-16) World BankDespite widespread awareness on the benefits of cloud computing, authorities in most of the World Bank’s client countries have not explored the opportunity of adopting cloud computing solutions. Task teams are finding it difficult to provide relevant advice to the counterparts and address their concerns. Most authorities have identified risks of moving to cloud computing: Will their data be safe? Will they have sovereign control over access to data stored offshore? Will privacy be protected? These risks are real. Due to an inadequate assessment framework to identify and assess these risks, the typical response of most client governments is to develop a government’s cloud (G-Cloud or GovCloud). This seems logical for more sensitive or mission critical data. However, this is not enough. Adopting a hybrid cloud model, which leverages the cloud services from the private sector to work in conjunction with the G-Cloud can offer immense opportunities to save costs, improve security, enhance performance, and strengthen resilience in a post COVID-19 world. However, client governments need guidance to change their policy response on cloud computing - from the risk-avoidance to the one of risk-management. This note provides guidance on institutional and procurement arrangements and risk mitigation methodology for acquiring and managing public cloud solutions using a whole-of-government approach.
Data Classification Matrix and Cloud Assessment Framework: Cloud Assessment Framework and Evaluation Methodology(Washington, DC, 2023-03-16) World BankThis data classification matrix and cloud assessment framework supports the policy goals articulated in the World Bank’s Institutional and procurement practice note for cloud computing services in the public sector. The framework is intended to support World Bank client countries, practitioners, and multilateral and bilateral development partners to manage the risks of acquiring public cloud solutions. These suggestions are based on good practices identified in the practice note. The framework first offers a data classification scheme for government data and personally identifiable information (PII) of citizens that governments and their contractors handle based upon the confidentiality, integrity, and availability security objectives. The framework then suggests cloud security requirements corresponding to each proposed data classification level. These security requirements are based upon international standards and good practices identified in the practice note. The framework also offers a checklist for procuring agencies seeking to procure cloud services.
Mobile Government: How-to Note(Washington, DC, 2023) World BankMobile phones have become the main communication tool and helped countless people to improve their lives in many countries. The use of mobile phones has grown exponentially over the past 30 years from 11 million subscriptions in 1990 to 8.6 billion in 2021.1 Ninety-five percent of the world’s population now has access to a mobile network. Acknowledging the ubiquitous presence of mobile phones in our lives, European Union governments have embraced the paradigm shift from electronic government (eGov) to mobile phone-based access to government services (mGov) through the Berlin Declaration 2020. The rationale was simple: even if governments have implemented eGovernment portals and online solutions, not everyone has access to the internet via a laptop or personal computer. Mobile phones, on the other hand, are almost universal. Though 17 percent of people in least developed countries still lack mobile access, active broadband subscriptions are increasing fast in all regions of the world, topped by Africa with 28 percent growth and Asia with 27 percent between 2018 and 2020. Mobile phones are thus helping more and more people connect to the jobs, business opportunities, and services they need to escape poverty.
Investment Promotion Agency Advocacy for Investment Climate Reform: Good Practice Principles and Case Studies(Washington, DC, 2022) Griffin, Carlos ; Rogatschnig, Zenia A.Investment promotion agencies (IPAs) use advocacy services to help their countries improve the quantity and quality of FDI they can attract, retain, and grow in the future. Successful IPA advocacy persuades governments to use targeted public reforms, expenditures, services, and convening power to attract, retain, and expand FDI in greater quantities and with higher positive development impact. This instructive note aims to present IPAs and their governments with insights on conducting advocacy effectively by providing an overview of key principles for advocacy and defining the systematic process involved in IPA advocacy services, which includes issue identification, solution formulation, and advocating for reform adoption and implementation. This note also provides four illustrative case studies of IPAs that successfully advocated for key investment climate enhancing reforms utilizing this systematic process, leveraging information collected from among the winners and other distinguished entrants of the 2021 Awards for Strengthening IPA Advocacy Services, jointly held by the WBG and the World Association of Investment Promotion Agencies (WAIPA).