Country Gender Assessment

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  • Publication
    Uzbekistan - Country Gender Assessment 2024
    (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2024-06-05) World Bank; The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development
    Addressing gender gaps is critical to the success of Uzbekistan’s inclusive transformation. Uzbekistan’s national income would be about 29 percent higher if women were to participate in equal measure to men. If working women were simply to catch up to the wages earned by men, the increased income would pull more than 700,000 people out of poverty. What prevents Uzbekistan from realizing such massive potential This Country Gender Assessment identifies strengths and examines the remaining barriers to greater equality within Uzbekistan’s ongoing social and economic transformation. It consolidates existing analytical work by the government, the World Bank, development partners, academia, and others. Ultimately, it proposes a set of high-priority goals essential to closing the gap between Uzbekistan’s current performance and its potential for more inclusive prosperity. The enduring challenge of gender inequality holds Uzbekistan back from its development potential. Comparing to global benchmarks identifies many of the strengths and weaknesses in Uzbekistan’s recent performance with regards to gender equality. In the 2022 global Gender Development Index, which measures gaps in human development achievements across health, knowledge, and living standards, Uzbekistan is ranked 106 out of 189 countries. Since monitoring began, life expectancy is the only component of the index for which women have ranked higher than men. Legal impediments to equality measured by the Women, Business, and the Law (WBL) index in 2023 revealed that Uzbekistan, with a score of just 70.6, ranked at the bottom of the list of Europe and Central Asia (ECA) countries, especially with respect to legislation addressing gender-based violence (GBV), equality in the workplace, equal pay, parenthood, and pensions. It should be noted however that recent legislation promises to raise the country’s future performance on the WBL measure in 2024, especially with respect to GBV and workplace protections introduced in the country’s new labor code. Despite challenges, Uzbekistan performs relatively well in several critical dimensions, above all with respect to equal access to basic health and education services, as is highlighted in the country’s strong performance in the global Gender Inequality Index. Collectively, these comparisons suggest that while Uzbekistan has a strong tradition investing in human capital for both men and women, an urgent agenda to foster a more inclusive society remains incomplete. But success promises to generate a virtuous circle of gender equity and economic growth.
  • Publication
    Zimbabwe Gender Assessment
    (Washington DC: World Bank, 2024-03-04) World Bank
    The aim of this report is to gather evidence that will identify priorities and actions by stakeholders towards positively influencing, up scaling and accelerating gender equality and women’s empowerment in Zimbabwe. The report consolidates information on gender gaps and drivers of inequality in human endowments, economic opportunities, ownership and control of assets, and voice and agency. This includes identifying factors that deepen inequalities, and effectiveness of current policies and programming in narrowing gender disparities. The aim is to also identify promising and good practices that can potentially be replicated for greater impact, cascading to all areas in the country. The analysis guided by a conceptual framework that describes the ways households, markets, and institutions (both formal and informal), and their interactions all influence gender equality and economic development outcomes. Additionally, attention is paid to intersecting identities of women and men that affect their ability to access services and opportunities, including disability status, place of residence and other socio cultural and economic factors. The assessment draws on several data sources collected using mixed methods. Available quantitative and qualitative data sources form the basis of the assessment, including surveys, national and institutional reports and broader feminist and economic literature. Robust stakeholder consultations, including representatives from Government of Zimbabwe (GoZ), development partners, the United Nations (UN), Non- Governmental Organizations (NGOs), and communities grounded the analysis and provided insights into priority setting and forward-looking strategies.
  • Publication
    Dominican Republic Gender Assessment
    (Washington, DC, 2024-01-17) World Bank
    Achieving inclusive growth and maximizing poverty reduction in the Dominican Republic requires closing existing gender gaps: from early childhood to working age, and further still into old age. Using a lifecycle approach, this gender Assessment attempts to uncover, better understand, and deliver some policy recommendations for the main challenges in this area, with a focus on the three main dimensions of endowments, economic opportunity, and agency.
  • Publication
    Gender Dimensions in the Educational Sector in Romania: Background Study for the Romania Gender Assessment
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2023-11-29) Robayo-Abril, Monica; Rude, Britta
    Addressing gender inequalities in educational outcomes is crucial from a human rights and development perspective. Building human capital early in life has crucial implications for developmental and labor market outcomes later in life. In this background note, prepared to inform the Romania Gender Assessment 2023, we rely on a variety of data sources to descriptively study gender inequalities in educational outcomes, such as enrollment rates and test scores, in Romania. We analyze these inequalities for the total population as well as for different income groups andregions. Our evidence shows that gender equality in aggregate estimates often masks important inequalities between subgroups. While in some cases, boys outperform girls, there are also cases in which girls outperform boys. These patterns differ across income groups, regions, and educational levels. Based on this evidence, the Romanian government should take a nuanced approach to achieving gender equality in the educational sector. Moreover, we find that—in the case of all indicators—both Romanian girls and boys perform significantly below the European average and thatthere are some negative trends over time, especially with respect to enrollment rates in secondary schools and school performance. Reversing these trends is crucial to ensure the full development of both boys and girls. Moreover, although girls outperform boys in several educational outcomes, these advantages do not translate into the labor market. We identify several constraints that could drive(reversed) gender gaps in educational outcomes: social norms and gender stereotypes (at home and within the schooling system), relatively low public spending on education at nearly all levels, marginalization and discrimination, teenage pregnancy, and school-based violence. We generate evidence on intergenerational educational persistence, which affects girls more. Moreover, we identify a lack of systematic evidence on what works best to close these gaps, and several important data limitations, such as a lack of indicators that clearly identify Roma children. Lastly, we identify ten high-level policy areas and recommend tailored policy interventions to address gender inequalities ineducation in Romania.
  • Publication
    The Gender Gap in Entrepreneurship in Romania: Background Study for the Romania Gender Assessment
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2023-11-29) Robayo-Abril, Monica; Rude, Britta
    Although female entrepreneurship is crucial to generating sustainable and equitable growth patterns, international evidence shows that women tend to be underrepresented in entrepreneurship, and this gender gap has exhibited remarkable persistence. In this study, we first measure the gender gap in entrepreneurship in Romania by using various data sources. We observe significant gender gaps, with the average gender gap in self-employment rates being 4.2 percentage points when abstracting from observable characteristics. Even when controlling for observable characteristics, the gender gap is persistent (3.7 percentage points). Other measures, such as the share of firms with female owners and top managers, indicate that the gap could be even larger. Moreover, we observe that the entrepreneurial gender gap varies across income quintiles and between rural and urban areas. In the second step, we analyze the potential drivers of women’s engaging less in entrepreneurship by following the model of the “5 M’s” developed by Brush, De Bruin, and Welter (2009). We find that the following drivers play a role in the entrepreneurial gender gap in Romania: gender gaps in financial inclusion and access to assets, harmful gender norms, motherhood, lack of childcare, and eldercare. Our findings suggest the need for a nuanced approach toward female entrepreneurship that factors in the distinct challenges of different groups of women and consists of a menu of policy interventions. Policies should range from improving women’s access to relevant assets, human capital, and networks to addressing harmful gender norms and sparking an entrepreneurial culture in Romania more generally. Lastly, our evidence indicates that women are more interested in “impact” entrepreneurship. As women entrepreneurs in Romania mainly operate in the primary sector, givingthem a leading role in the green transition has great potential for more sustainable and equitable growth patterns.
  • Publication
    Gender Equality in Romania: Where Do We Stand? - Romania Gender Assessment
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2023-11-29) Robayo-Abril, Monica; Chilera, Chifundo Patience; Rude, Britta; Costache, Irina
    This Country Gender Assessment (CGA) presents updated evidence on the recent gender gaps in Romania and identifies entry points for the sustainable reduction of gender inequalities to support the World Bank country program and the Romanian government’s efforts. This CGA updates the 2018 Romania Gender Assessment (World Bank 2018a) while adding new insights concerning the key drivers and policies to reduce gender inequalities in the country. The report diagnoses the most critical barriers (structural, institutional, and behavioral) that females face, particularly when accessing education and employment, and further, how women’s employment and educational outcomes are constrained to a greater degree than the same outcomes for males. This is informed by key findings from thematic studies or “deep dives” into areas that have been identified as key determinants of the gender gaps inthe country19 and where knowledge gaps in the country or the lack of recent information are hindering the development and implantation of evidence-based policy. It also presents rigorous evidence on what works in countries with similar income levels and contexts to address those barriers in order to highlight policies and interventions that can move the needle toward gender equality. This analysis aimsto strengthen the knowledge base so as to inform the design of policies and interventions to improve progress toward gender equality. In particular, it is expected to inform the government’s and the World Bank’s efforts to close the gender gaps.
  • Publication
    Mozambique Gender Assessment: Leveraging Women and Girls' Potential
    (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2023-10-13) World Bank
    This gender assessment has been prepared as an input for the preparation of the World Bank’s Country Partnership Strategy for Mozambique (2023–2027). However, this assessment is not limited to areas of the World Bank’s current country engagement; rather, it seeks to provide a general overview of the key challenges and opportunities facing Mozambican women and girls across different dimensions of their lives. The assessment adopts a life-cycle approach identifying key inflection points in the lives of women and girls that either limit or facilitate their empowerment.The assessment is based on a desk review of available studies, reports, and data from Mozambique, and draws on global evidence, largely from the Africa region.
  • Publication
    Zambia Gender Assessment
    (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2023-06-15) World Bank
    In its development agenda, the government of the Republic of Zambia (GRZ) is strongly committed to tackling gender inequality. To support this vision, the Eighth National Development Plan (8NDP) 2022-2026 identifies human and social development as fundamental to inclusive development, and as a central ingredient to help catapult the transformation of the country. To achieve gender parity, the GRZ has put in place a policy and legal framework to guide the implementation of gender-responsive programming. Some of these issues can be addressed through a stricter implementation of the current policy and legal frameworks; however, enforcing existing legal frameworks which seek to promote women’s empowerment is not enough. The report provides an overview of gender inequalities as reflected across key areas of human endowments; access to economic opportunities; women ownership and control over assets; and voice and agency and concludes with several recommendations for addressing ways in which women remain disadvantaged, including promoting income-generating activities, facilitating women’s entrepreneurship training, and strengthening interventions to end child marriage and teenage pregnancies. Pinpointed recommendations are offered for each. Since drivers of gender inequality are interrelated, moving forward, addressing the many areas of vulnerability requires a holistic, interdisciplinary approach.
  • Publication
    Unlocking Women’s and Girls’ Potential: The status of women and girls relative to men and boys in Guinea
    (Washington, DC, 2023-05-10) World Bank
    Evidence shows that Guinean women and girls face important barriers across all dimensions of well-being that prevent them from having access to opportunities on an equal footing with men. The poor agency of women and girls, as reflected in the high prevalence of discriminatory legal and social norms, translates into gaps in health, education, employment, and entrepreneurship, ultimately undermining their capacity to fulfill their potential and imposing important societal costs. This report presents a summary of the key challenges facing Guinean women and girls relative to men and boys. The report has a particular focus on early family formation, a common phenomenon in the country with important implications for girls’ and women’s well-being and opportunities in life. On the basis of this diagnostic and a review of evidence of what works, the report proposes some strategic lines of action to address the existing constraints and effectively empower Guinean women.
  • Publication
    Bangladesh Country Gender Assessment 2021
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2022) Moyeen, Sabah; Lonnberg, Tara; Akter, Marufa; Chowdhury, Samera; Parvin, Sabina; Sethi, Jayati; Suwal, Erisha Singh; Tazrin, Mohsiu Rashedin; Zaman, Sanan Isaba
    This Country Gender Assessment presents key gender issues to be considered for Bangladesh’s desired transformation. The objective of the assessment is to inform the World Bank Country Partnership Framework (CPF) for Bangladesh, which is currently being developed. Gender issues are discussed across the four pillars of the World Bank Gender Strategy FY16–23 (World Bank Group 2015). Given the unique challenges emerging from the Displaced Rohingya Population (DRP) influx, gender gap analysis is also conducted for the host community in Cox’s Bazar district. Timely discussion of the impacts of Coronavirus (COVID-19) on women and girls is included as part of the analysis of gender gaps across these five areas. Similarly, the impacts of climate change on women and girls and their potential role in climate adaptation are also discussed across pillars. The Country Gender Assessment serves as a compendium of existing analytical work on gender issues and opportunities by the World Bank, GoB, development partners, academia, and others, including the Bank’s Bangladesh jobs diagnostic and voices to choices report. The executive summary highlights key interlinkages between the barriers to gender equality and the frontier challenges that Bangladesh is facing