Accounting and Auditing Assessment

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  • Publication
    Reporting by Audit Oversight Bodies
    (World Bank, Vienna, 2018) World Bank Group
    A wave of accounting scandals beginning about fifteen years ago, including Enron, WorldCom, and Parmalat, created a consensus among policymakers across the globe that independent auditors were not adequately challenging the financial reporting by their clients and could not be trusted to regulate themselves. Beginning with the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 in the U.S., there has been a global movement away from self-regulation of the auditing profession and towards independent oversight. Perhaps the most important milestone in this movement was the 2006 Audit Directive of the European Union, which required all EU members and accession candidates to implement independent oversight. A key goal of independent oversight is to provide relevant and reliable information to investors, lenders, audit committees, regulators, other stakeholders, and the general public about auditors and the audit market, among other matters. This paper aims to provide a brief synopsis on the topic of reporting by audit oversight bodies (AOBs) through their annual and inspection reports. It outlines international principles and legislative requirements, highlights certain good practices and shares results from a focused survey across EU-REPARIS and STAREP countries.
  • Publication
    Key Accounting and Auditing Reforms
    (World Bank, Vienna, 2017-12-01) World Bank Group
    The purpose of this knowledge paper focusing on key accounting and auditing reforms is to assist the government to make informed decisions for future reform actions following the publication of the Macedonian Report on the Observance of Standards and Codes (ROSC) on Accounting and Auditing (A and A). The paper should be used as a tool to assist the Ministry of Finance when discussing and further analyzing some possible implications of various reform actions that the government and key stakeholders may choose to conduct, as well as provide possible application examples when possible. The government has remained committed to continue its reform efforts in corporate financial reporting frameworks and actual practices and implement the recommendations of the ROSC A and A update. This paper is divided into four thematic areas including: (i) Definition and special Considerations for Public Interest Entities (PIEs); (ii) Reducing regulatory burdens related to compliance with accounting, financial reporting and auditing requirements for Micro and Small and Medium Sized Enterprises (SMEs); (iii) public oversight of statutory auditors and quality assurance over external audit function; and (iv) professional accountancy education and training.
  • Publication
    Poland: Report on the Observance of Standards and Codes on Accounting and Auditing Update
    (World Bank, Vienna, 2015-08-27) World Bank Group
    Reports on the Observance of Standards and Codes (ROSC) Accounting and Auditing (AA) assess accounting and auditing practices in participating countries. They form part of a joint initiative that is implemented by the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund to review the quality of implementation of twelve internationally recognized core standards (the ROSC Program). These standards and their related codes are relevant to economic stability, and private and financial sector development. The program was developed at the end of the 1990s, in the wake of financial crises that affected many countries in several regions of the world. In the case of the ROSC AA for Poland, the international standards used as benchmarks are (i) relevant portions of European Union legislation (also called the acquis communautaire), (ii) International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS), (iii) clarified International Standards on Auditing (ISA), (iv) the International Federation of Accounts (IFAC) Code of Ethics, and (v) other international good practice in the field of accounting and auditing regulation. This is the third ROSC AA for Poland. The first two were conducted in 2002 and 2005. This report updates the findings of the 2005 report, and assesses the extent to which prior recommendations have been implemented. Since its inception in the early 2000s, the ROSC AA program has concluded evaluations in more than one hundred countries around the world. ROSC AA reports have been produced for all countries of the Europe and Central Asia region, except the Russian Federation. This ROSC AA serves three main objectives: (i) to support Poland’s development strategy, particularly regarding the enhancement of economic competitiveness, (ii) to assess progress achieved under the Financial Reporting Technical Assistance Program (FRTAP), and (iii) to update the findings of the 2005 ROSC AA. The FRTAP is a Swiss-funded program aimed at strengthening accounting and auditing practices in Poland through the implementation of high quality standards in these areas.
  • Publication
    Report on the Observance of Standards and Codes on Accounting and Auditing Update: Republic of Serbia
    (World Bank, Vienna, 2015-06) World Bank Group
    This report on observance of standards and codes in accounting and auditing (ROSC A & A) provides an assessment of accounting, financial reporting, and auditing requirements and practices within the enterprise and financial sectors of Serbia and sets forth areas of consideration with a view to improving the country’s institutional environment for corporate financial reporting. To assess Serbia’s compliance with standards and codes, this report uses international benchmarks of good practice, including international financial reporting standards (IFRS), international standards on auditing (ISA), the statements of membership obligations (SMO) of the international federation of accountants (IFAC), and - because Serbia is seeking accession to the European Union (EU) - relevant provisions of the EU acquis communautaire (the acquis) governing financial reporting. The assessment focuses on the strengths and weaknesses of the A and A environment that influence the quality of corporate financial reporting, and includes a review of both statutory requirements and actual practice. It updates an earlier assessment published in 2005. ROSC A and A assess accounting and auditing practices in participating countries.
  • Publication
    Slovenia Report on the Observance of Standards and Codes: Accounting and Auditing
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2014-05) World Bank
    This assessment of accounting and auditing practices in Slovenia is part of a joint initiative of the World Bank and International Monetary Fund (IMF) to prepare Reports on the Observance of Standards and Codes (ROSC). The assessment focuses on the strengths and weaknesses of the accounting and auditing environment that influence the quality of corporate financial reporting and includes a review of both mandatory requirements and actual practice. This is the second A&A ROSC for Slovenia and based on information collected in 2013, early 2014. The first one was published in 2004. As the requirements of the EU acquis communautaire and international standards have already been adopted in the financial sector this assessment focuses on the proper application of these requirements, with the view that improved financial information raises the capacity of regulators to maintain financial stability, and improve the level of trust in the financial system, in the context of an ongoing recapitalization exercise. In the State Owned Enterprises, or SOEs, the report focuses on the requirements applicable to them and how well these are enforced, as well as to what extent the government uses the financial reporting and audit process to monitor SOEs and hold their management teams accountable. This report also considers SMEs financial reporting, including how current requirements compare with the latest revisions to the EU Accounting Directive, which further simplified requirements for smaller companies. Finally, audit oversight and quality assurance systems are assessed, including the feasibility of incorporating the audit oversight body as part of the financial sector supervisor.
  • Publication
    Report on the Observance of Standards and Codes on Accounting and Auditing Update: Czech Republic
    (World Bank, Vienna, 2013-05) World Bank
    Reports on the Observance of Standards and Codes (ROSC) Accounting and Auditing (A&A) assess accounting and auditing practices in participating countries. They form part of a joint initiative that is implemented by the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund to review the quality of implementation of twelve internationally recognized core standards (the ROSC program). These standards and their related codes are relevant to economic stability and private and financial sector development. The program was developed at the end of the 1990s, in the wake of financial crises that affected many countries in several regions of the world. Since its inception in early 2000, the ROSC A&A program has concluded evaluations of the A&A environment in more than one hundred countries around the world. ROSC A&A reports have been produced for all countries of the Europe and Central Asia Region, except Russia. Initiatives to reassure investors about the quality of financial reporting of public interest entities, including listed companies, banks and insurance companies will also be essential.
  • Publication
    Moldova Report on the Observance of Standards and Codes: Accounting and Auditing
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2004-06-28) World Bank Group
    Financial reporting and auditing practices in Moldova's corporate sector are currently in a period of transition from providing for tax calculation and statistical needs to convergence with International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) and International Standards on Auditing (ISA). This report draws upon recent international experience in developed economies and EU accession countries as well as expected amendments to EU Directives. The National Accounting Standards (NAS) were developed on the basis of International Accounting Standards (IAS) from 1996 to 1998 for the most part, but they are substantially incomplete and out of date vis-à-vis IFRS (which incorporate IAS). Accordingly, the standard-setting process should be streamlined so as to allow the prompt adoption of the numerous existing IASs not yet reflected in the NAS. The National Standards of Auditing were developed recently and mirror ISA. The existing Accounting Law and certain aspects of the Joint Stock Companies Law are unduly onerous and restrictive in that they demand bookkeeping and other administrative procedures not normally required in market economy systems. These conflict with mandated accounting standards, confuse the preparers of financial statements and are detrimental to the quality of the financial information. A new Accounting Law should be passed with simplified requirements and incorporating key elements of the NAS and relevant EU Directives on that matter.