Accounting and Auditing Assessment

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  • Publication
    Republic of Tajikistan : Accounting and Auditing
    (Washington, DC, 2009-12) World Bank
    This report describes the results of a ROSC assessment of the accounting, financial reporting and auditing requirements and practices of the Republic of Tajikistan's enterprise and financial sectors. The report assesses the quality of the Tajik financial reporting framework and makes policy recommendations for improvement. With a gross national income per capita of US$430, Tajikistan remains the poorest country in the former Soviet Union. Despite various reforms over the past several years, the business climate still lags behind other transition countries. Many of the country's problems stem from the 1992-1997 civil war, which so damaged the country's economic infrastructure that it precipitated a sharp decline in industrial and agricultural production. Although there has been moderate domestic growth since 1997, real output is currently just over 50 percent of the 1989 level. The Republic of Tajikistan's small financial system is dominated by a few banks. The level of financial activity is among the lowest in the world, with Tajik lending amounting to merely 7.1 percent of GDP in 2007. More than 80 percent of the country s small- to medium-sized enterprises do not use the banking sector. The Republic of Tajikistan needs to improve and strengthen its corporate financial reporting system to ensure that public interest entities, such as banks and state-owned entities, become more accountable and transparent. The country needs enhanced accounting, disclosure and auditing regulations, more power for regulators and professional bodies to enforce accounting and auditing regulations and more extensive, practical and continuing professional education. All of this should be done without adding excessive regulatory burdens on medium-sized, small and micro entities.
  • Publication
    An Independent Oversight Body for Quality Assurance Review in the Philippines
    (Washington, DC, 2009-02) World Bank
    The paper is part of a program to provide support to a major recommendation in the Philippine Review of Standards and Codes on Accounting and Auditing (ROSC-A&A). The ROSC-A&A brought out that there were major improvements in the accounting and auditing scene since the last assessment made in 2001. Substantially complete improvements include the adoption of the international standards for accounting, auditing, and professional ethics. The objects of this program were as follows: First, to develop a strategic plan to provide for the adoption and implementation of a QAR (Quality Assurance Review) program for auditing firms in the Philippines. Second, begin devloping a cooperative arrangement between Philippine regulatory authorities and the accounting professional body, and develop rules and regulations subjecting auditors and/or auditing firms to such a quality assurance review program. This would include administrative steps to be taken by the relevant government authority to initiate this program. Third, to enable the development a medium-term strategic plan for sustainability of the QAR program. The proposed plan should be the product of working closely with the relevant regulatory body (BOA) and PICPA incorporating their inputs in the study. This should ensure their eventual acceptability for adoption and implementation by these entities.
  • Publication
    Accounting and Auditing : Romania
    (Washington, DC, 2008-12) World Bank
    This assessment of accounting and auditing practices in Romania is part of a joint initiative by the World Bank and International Monetary Fund (IMF) to prepare Reports on the Observance of Standards and Codes (ROSC). The assessment focuses on the strengths and weaknesses of the accounting and auditing environment that influence the quality of corporate financial reporting, and includes a review of both statutory requirements and actual practice. It uses International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) and International Standards on Auditing (ISA) as benchmarks and draws on international experience and best practices. This assessment updates the findings of the previous accounting and auditing ROSC conducted in Romania in 2002 and published in 2003. It is important to note that there has been significant growth in the credit environment including significant increases in the granting of foreign currency denominated credit. The proportion of loans denominated in foreign currency has risen recently to 50 per cent of all loans granted. Provisions to convert outstanding loan amounts into local currency under certain thresholds often exist in foreign currency denominated loan contracts. These provisions aim to address the potential credit risk arising from the foreign exchange risk borne by the borrowers. While the National Bank of Romania is monitoring the situation closely and requiring higher bank reserves for loans denominated in foreign currency (to curb the growth of such loans), these aspects could provide significant challenges to the National Bank of Romania in future years.
  • Publication
    Accounting and Auditing: Ukraine
    (Washington, DC, 2008-12) World Bank
    This assessment of accounting and auditing practices in Ukraine is part of a joint initiative of the World Bank and International Monetary Fund (IMF) to prepare Reports on the Observance of Standards and Codes (ROSC). The assessment focuses on the strengths and weaknesses of the accounting and auditing environment that influence the quality of corporate financial reporting and includes both a review of both mandatory requirements and actual practice. The report uses International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) and International Standards on Auditing (ISA) as benchmarks and draws on international experience and good practice in the field of accounting and auditing regulation. All the key economic sectors in Ukraine rely on high quality financial information, which requires high quality private sector accounting and auditing. As Ukraine moves towards further reforms, liberalization and deregulation in efforts to foster an investment-friendly business environment enhanced financial transparency and improved accounting and auditing practices must support this. In this context, this report sets out policy recommendations to enhance the quality of corporate financial reporting and foster a financial reporting platform conducive to sustainable private and financial sector growth, thus increasing access to global financial markets and other tools of the market economy.
  • Publication
    The Republic of Uzbekistan : Accounting and Auditing
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2008-12) World Bank
    This report describes the results of an assessment of the accounting, financial reporting and auditing requirements and practices of the Republic of Uzbekistan's enterprise and financial sectors. The report uses, inter alia, International Accounting Standards (IAS), International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS), and International Standards on Auditing (ISA) as benchmarks, and draws on international experience and good practices in the field of accounting and audit regulation, to assess the quality of Uzbek financial information and make policy recommendations
  • Publication
    The Kyrgyz Republic : Accounting and Auditing
    (Washington, DC, 2008-11) World Bank
    This report provides an assessment of accounting, financial reporting, and auditing requirements and practices within the enterprise and financial sectors in the Kyrgyz Republic. The report uses International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) and International Standards on Auditing (ISA) as benchmarks and draws on international experience and good practices in the field of accounting and audit regulation to assess the quality of financial information and make policy recommendations. The main finding of this report is that enhancements in accounting and auditing legislation have often not been carried through to improvements in practice. Greater efforts need to be made to apply and enforce legal requirements properly. Compounding this challenge is the lack of compliance with existing public disclosure requirements and there is a need for greater public availability of financial information. Otherwise, even if accounting and auditing improves, users will not be able to access and make use of this information, reducing the overall benefits to society and the potential for private-sector-led economic growth. The Kyrgyz economy has achieved moderate growth (5.4 percent in 2004, -0.2 percent in 2005, and 2.7 percent in 2006); however, in order to enhance growth, promote further economic development, and decrease the cost of capital, additional reforms in accounting and auditing are required to produce financial information of high quality.
  • Publication
    Republic of Rwanda : Accounting and Auditing
    (Washington, DC, 2008-06-19) World Bank
    This report is an assessment of the corporate sector accounting, financial reporting, and auditing practices within Rwanda. This Report on the Observance of Standards and Codes (ROSC) is benchmarked to International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) and International Standards on Auditing (ISA) and draws on international experience and good practices to assess the strengths and weaknesses of the institutional underpinnings of corporate financial reporting and make policy recommendations. This assessment is mainly aimed at preparing a road map for institutional capacity building including development of the accountancy profession for bolstering the corporate sector accounting, financial reporting, and auditing in Rwanda. Rwanda is making considerable effort to align its accounting and auditing practices with internationally accepted standards and codes. Along with its growing economy, Rwanda must take effective steps for strengthening all the pillars of the infrastructure of accounting and auditing in line with the international good practices. The ROSC review findings reveal that there are varying compliance gaps in both accounting and auditing practices in Rwanda. These gaps stem from lack of clearer understanding among practicing accountants and auditors about the requirements of internationally accepted standards, inadequate technical capacities of the regulators, absence of implementation guidance, lack of independent oversight of the auditing profession, and shortcomings in professional education and training. The Institute of Certified Public Accountants of Rwanda (ICPAR) will assume the role of the self-regulatory professional accountancy body in the country.
  • Publication
    Accounting and Auditing: Armenia
    (Washington, DC, 2008-06) World Bank
    This report provides an assessment of accounting, financial reporting and auditing requirements and practices within the enterprise and financial sectors in Armenia. The report uses International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) formerly International Accounting Standards (IAS) and International Standards on Auditing (ISA) as benchmarks and draws on international experience and good practices in the field of accounting and audit regulation, including in European Union (EU) member states, to assess the quality of financial information and make policy recommendations. This assessment of accounting and auditing practices in Armenia is part of a joint initiative of the World Bank and International Monetary Fund (IMF) to prepare Reports on the Observance of Standards and Codes (ROSC). The assessment focuses on the strengths and weaknesses of the accounting and auditing environment that influence the quality of corporate financial reporting and includes a review of both mandatory requirements and actual practice.
  • Publication
    Kingdom of Thailand : Accounting and Auditing
    (Washington, DC, 2008-04) World Bank
    Thailand has made great efforts over the past ten years to improve the quality of corporate financial reporting. Considerable progress has been made on various fronts to strengthen the institutional framework of accounting and auditing, and to move towards converging Thai national accounting and auditing standards with international benchmarks. This report focuses on areas where stakeholders in the accounting profession in Thailand could consider making changes to strengthen the profession and increase consistency with global benchmarks. The Federation of Accounting Professions (FAP) is the self-regulatory professional body, which is a member of the International Federation of Accountants. The FAP is also the standard-setter, perhaps overly stretched with many responsibilities covered by the volunteer efforts of its members. The FAP develops and reviews accounting standards, as well as audit and ethics standards in line with international good practices. Thailand has in place legislation governing the creation and responsibilities of entities engaged in commercial activities: the accounting act, the accounting professions act, and the public limited companies act. The accounting standard-setting committee reviews international standards and issues these as national standards, through the government processes, thereby significantly reducing the gap between Thai accounting standards and international standards. To aid in the implementation of Thai accounting and auditing standards, there is a need to improve the institutional framework, including the development of a standard-setting strategy and implementation plan, to enhance practical compliance and enforcement of standards. The Securities and Exchange Commission of Thailand (SEC) has established a monitoring and enforcement process. The SEC accounting supervision department co-operates with the federation of accounting professions on evaluation of the quality of auditors. Enriched by significant input from stakeholders, this report makes recommendations for enhancements to the statutory framework, for institutional and policy development; independent reviews of audit practices; development of a strategy for continued convergence of Thai and international accounting standards with adoption of International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) for public interest entities; broader training programs on practical application of the new accounting and auditing standards, and code of ethics for professional accountants; and continued development of accountancy curricula and teaching in universities throughout the country.
  • Publication
    Mongolia : Accounting and Auditing
    (Washington, DC, 2008-03) World Bank
    This report provides an assessment of corporate sector accounting, financial reporting, and auditing requirements and practices within the enterprise and financial sectors in Mongolia. For purposes of this report, the corporate sector includes all private sector and state-owned enterprises. The report uses International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) and International Standards on Auditing (ISA) as benchmarks and draws on international experience and good practices in the field of accounting and audit regulation to evaluate institutional capacity and make policy recommendations. Since 1993, the World Bank and other development partners of Mongolia have provided financial and technical support to help Mongolia develop a legal framework, facilitate accounting education and adoption of IFRS and ISA by enterprises, constitute a new professional body, establish the examination of certified public accountants, and strengthen accounting and auditing in both public and private sectors. As a result, Mongolia has made significant changes from the old accounting for planned economic system to a new market-oriented accounting system that follows international good practices. All key economic sectors in Mongolia rely on high-quality financial information, which requires high-quality private sector accounting and auditing. Reforms, liberalization, and deregulation to further enhance the Mongolian business environment must be supported by enhanced financial transparency and improved accounting and auditing practices. Increased levels of both foreign direct investment and domestic investment demand higher-quality financial information consistent with international standards. Continuing the strengthening and development of financial reporting, accounting and auditing, and the regulatory framework that governs them, will bring benefits to Mongolia and its citizens. In this context, this report sets out policy recommendations to enhance the quality of corporate financial reporting and foster a financial reporting platform conducive to sustainable private and financial sector growth, thus increasing access to global financial markets and other tools of the market economy.