Items in this collection

Now showing 1 - 10 of 173
  • Publication
    Diagnostic Analysis for Circular Economy Interventions in Poland
    (Washington, DC, 2023-12-05) World Bank
    Over the past decade, material efficiency and resource productivity have surfaced on the global policy agenda. The rise of the circular economy (CE) agenda reflects the objective of moving away from the current systems of production and consumption based on the ‘take-make-use-waste’ linear economic model toward economies centered on minimizing the use of virgin materials without adversely affecting welfare. The focus is on a life-cycle approach to resource management, which starts with reducing raw material demand by looping resources back into consumption and production systems, through innovations in material design, production, and reutilization processes. In addition to reducing pollution and other environmental pressures, CE can be a driver of private sector growth and jobs, and can increase the strategic autonomy of countries by reducing dependence on raw material imports. The objective of this rapid analysis is to identify the CE-related priority areas/sectors in Poland and potential areas of focus for follow-up interventions. The study also aims to highlight barriers that prevent the national and local governments from undertaking these interventions as well as enabling factors and approaches to overcome them. This report is not intended to be an in-depth analysis but rather an overview of the status of CE implementation in Poland that provides some recommendations to policy makers on how to accelerate progress toward a CE in Poland.
  • Publication
    Piloting a Machine Learning-Based Job-Matching Algorithm: Summary of Results from Pomerania
    (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2023-11-20) Honorati, Maddalena; Gajderowicz, Tomasz
    The objective of this note is to present and discuss the findings of piloting a task-based job matching tool developed by the World Bank and implemented in partnership with the Regional Labor Office of Pomerania, Poland. The aim of the pilot was to assess whether simple ML-based tools could contribute to improve the efficiency of PES delivery and job-seeking behaviors compared to rule-based, knowledge-driven approaches. By combining labor demand data from local occupational barometers and the descriptions of tasks in the national taxonomy of occupations, the tool provides jobseekers a menu of potential jobs available in the local labor markets that match the tasks performed in previous work experiences. Results show that jobseekers were satisfied with the proposed occupations resulting from the tool (as beyond their thinking) and had the intention to expand job search efforts, though job-seeking behaviors could not be monitored. Career advisers recognized that the lack of information on jobseekers’ education, skills, and preferences limited the efficiency of the proposed job matches.
  • Publication
    Options to Support Workers through a Transition away from Coal in Eastern Wielkopolska (March 2022)
    (World Bank, WAshington DC, 2023-05-30) Honorati, Maddalena
    The objective of this policy note is to provide an overview of the three draft project proposals and to recommend key design principles and implementation arrangement options for a coordinated outplacement program in the Eastern Wielkopolska region that would provide a package of services to motivate and help affected workers find suitable jobs in alignment with the TJTP. The focus of the note is on interventions supporting the social and labor transition in Eastern Wielkopolska, rather than the economic, spatial, and energy transformations which are also part of the JTM Pillar. Efforts to promote local economic development and environmental rehabilitation of affected subregions as well as to develop stakeholder engagement and public communication strategies are beyond the scope of this note.
  • Publication
    Who is Most Vulnerable to the Transition Away from Coal? Ruda Śląska Residents’ Preferences Towards Jobs and Land Repurposing
    (World Bank, 2023-05-24) Honorati, Maddalena; Gajderowicz, Tomasz
    After Germany, Poland is the EU’s second largest coal producer and consumer.1 96 percent of EU-27 hard coal production, or 54.4 million tons, is extracted in Poland (EURACOAL, 2020). In 2020, over 40 percent of the country’s total energy supply (TES) and 70 percent of its electricity generation come from coal and lignite (IEA, 2022), the highest rate in Europe. Coal in Poland also continues to employ about 88,000 people directly in the mines, down from about 444,000 in 1989. Europe’s commitment to stop its fossil fuel imports from Russia following Russia’s invasion of Ukraine is slowing down Poland’s coal phase-out to ensure energy security in Europe,2 but Poland remains committed to a complete coal mine closure by 2049.
  • Publication
    R&D Policy and the Role of Research Institutions in Fostering Green Innovation in Poland
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2023-05-18) Ambasz, Diego; Zuniga, Pluvia
    The diagnostic and analysis presented in this report unveils a complex and challenging picture of Polish R&D capacity and its technological preparedness to engage and deliver green-innovation solutions for regions and industries. The report pinpoints opportunity areas to catch up, as well as the competences that Poland can leverage to address capacity and preparedness challenges. Policy goals should, therefore, ensure that actions by the state, research centers, universities, private sector, and all agents in the innovation eco-system help meet environmental and sustainable development commitments.
  • Publication
    Capturing the Educational and Economic Impacts of School Closures in Poland
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2022-12) Gajderowicz, Tomasz; Jakubowski, Maciej; Patrinos, Harry Anthony; Wrona, Sylwia
    The effect of school closures in the spring of 2020 on the math, science, and reading skills of secondary school students in Poland is estimated. The COVID-19-induced school closures lasted 26 weeks in Poland, one of Europe's longest periods of shutdown. Comparison of the learning outcomes with pre- and post-COVID-19 samples shows that the learning loss was equal to more than one year of study. Assuming a 45-year working life of the total affected population, the economic loss in future student earnings may amount to 7.2 percent of Poland’s gross domestic product.
  • Publication
    Towards a Just Coal Transition Labor Market Challenges and People’s Perspectives from Wielkopolska
    (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2022-10-18) Christiaensen, Luc; Honorati, Maddalena; Wrona, Sylwia Michalina
    Part of a three-region set of papers analyzing coal-related labor market challenges in Poland, this paper focuses on Wielkopolska, which is most advanced in the transition out of coal. Finding viable job transitions is of enormous importance. The findings call for a more territorial-oriented approach to brokering the coal transition, rather than a sectoral one. First, even though limited from a regional perspective (4,000 workers), affected jobs are highly concentrated in a few already lagging and depopulating municipalities. Second, while coal-related workers are similarly skilled as other workers in Wielkopolska, non-coal related workers in the at-risk municipalities are substantially less skilled, exposing them to potential displacement effects. Finally, while ready to work and to be re-skilled, discrete choice experiments about their job attribute preferences show that all workers are averse both to commuting and relocating for work, even more so than in Silesia and Lower Silesia. Complementary social protection and employment support will be needed, and the paper suggests some policy options based on international experience. The paper concludes by illustrating how a big-data driven job-matching tool, calibrated on the Polish labor market, could be used to assist caseworkers in identifying “viable-job-transition-pathways” for affected workers as well as to help policymakers identify reskilling needs and attract investments.
  • Publication
    Do Uslug? At Your Service: The Promise of Services-Led Development in Poland
    (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2022-05-31) World Bank
    The services sector has played an important role in the structural transformation of Poland, providing employment opportunities, and creating productivity growth. Close to 60 percent of employees now work in the services sector. Nevertheless, the sector’s productivity lags that of other countries, and Poland’s service sector is dominated more by low-skilled, intensive services and less by ‘global innovator’ services (e.g., ICT and financial and other professional services). The services sector in Poland is dominated by smaller, less productive firms, highlighting a potential area for improvement. Linkages between the services sector and the manufacturing sector appear weaker in Poland than in other EU countries. A high share of services (42 percent) is produced for domestic households rather than for other firms. Targeting the growth of enabling service sectors to allow spillovers into other sectors offers another area for improvement.
  • Publication
    Addressing Challenges to Growth, Security and Stability Speech by World Bank Group President David Malpass at the Warsaw School of Economics
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2022-04-12) Malpass, David
    These remarks were delivered by the World Bank Group President David Malpass, addressing Challenges to Growth, Security and Stability on April 12, 2022 at the Warsaw School of Economics. He spoke about again living through a dangerous period of overlapping crises and conflicts with Poland near the center. He has been deeply shocked and horrified at Russia’s invasion of Ukraine, the atrocities committed against the civilian population, and the loss of life and livelihoods for millions of Ukrainians. Since the invasion, the World Bank Group has provided fast-disbursing financial support to Ukraine to help the government provide critical services to people, including wages for hospital workers, pensions for the elderly, and social programs for the vulnerable. Through IFC, they have provided immediate working capital for companies providing supplies to Ukraine. He was pleased to announce that the World Bank is preparing a nearly 1.5 billion US dollars operation for Ukraine to support continuation of essential government services during the war. He also discussed about the following: (i) Overlapping global crises; (ii) Weakening economic outlook; (iii) Areas for action; and (iv) Lessons learned.
  • Publication
    Sustainable Cities Towards A Green, Resilient and Inclusive Recovery: Applying the Sustainable Cities Implementation Framework in Bulgaria, Croatia, Poland, and Romania
    (Washington, DC, 2022-03) World Bank
    Cities are key to unlocking a climate-smart future for all, as they account for more than 50 percent of the global population, about 70 percent of global energy-related CO2 emissions and 80 percent of global GDP. Urban centers’ share of emissions is expected to grow as the urban population is projected to increase by 2.3 billion people by 20502. As the world recovers from the COVID-19 crisis, cities will present a huge opportunity to rebuild in a way that is climate friendly and meets some of the world’s ambitious climate targets. Cities are viewed as the source of and the solution to many of today's economic, social, and environmental challenges. This is not only because of the concentration of population and economic assets in urban areas, but also because local authorities perform key functions that impact the quality of life of their residents. From an urban management perspective, the leading resource and knowledge sharing platform is the GEF funded Global Platform for Sustainable Cities (GPSC), hosted by the World Bank. The GPSC states that achieving sustainability requires the balanced accomplishment of outcomes against four pillars, namely (1) robust economic growth, prosperity, and competitiveness across all parts of the city; (2) protection and conservation of ecosystems and natural resources into perpetuity; (3) mitigation of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions while fostering overall city resilience; and (4) inclusiveness and livability, mainly through the reduction of city poverty levels and inequality. The Urban Sustainability Framework (USF), developed to outline the areas of work and support by the GPSC, offers a very useful representation of both outcomes as well as enabling actions and requirements (such as spatial data and good governance) cities could focus on.