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PublicationSierra Leone Report on the Observance of Standards and Codes: Accounting and Auditing(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2020-01) World Bank GroupSierra Leone is implementing a Medium-Term National Development Plan for 2019–2023 (2019 NDP) entitled “Education for Development”, aimed at improving people’s lives through education, inclusive growth, and the building of a resilient economy. The objective of the second Sierra Leone Report on the Observance of Standards and Codes - Accounting and Auditing (ROSC A&A) is to determine the kinds of reforms that will further strengthen the accountancy profession and enhance its contribution to the country’s growth agenda. This review focused on: (a) assessing the status of implementation of the policy recommendations and action plan developed after the first review in 2006, as well as its impact on the accountancy profession, (b) assessing and identifying any emerging issues that relate to A&A practices that require strengthening, and (c) proposing policy recommendations to strengthen the profession. The review was conducted from May to November 2019 following the revised World Bank ROSC A&A 2 methodology. PublicationMyanmar Report on Observance of Standards and Codes: Accounting and Auditing Module(Washington, DC, 2017-06) World BankSince launching fundamental political and economic reforms in 2011, Myanmar has been undergoing a major transformation aimed at increasing openness, empowerment and inclusion. The economic transition has witnessed an acceleration in growth, buoyed by improved macroeconomic management, increased gas production and exports, and stronger performance in the non-gas sectors as the economy opened up. Medium-term economic growth is projected to average 7.1 percent per year. The new Government’s economic objectives envisage Myanmar’s economy becoming more competitive and with the ability to attract increased foreign direct investment. The objectives include the development of an integrated capital market and a modern financial sector. A fundamental foundation for any market-based economy is high quality financial reporting and auditing practices. This plays a vital role in promoting improved transparency and accountability thereby ensuring a level playing field and promoting investor confidence. The Reports on the Observance of Standards and Codes (ROSC) are a joint World Bank and International Monetary Fund (IMF) initiative that helps member countries strengthen their financial systems by improving compliance with internationally recognized standards and codes. The ROSC was developed in the wake of the financial crisis of the late 1990s as part of a series of measures to strengthen the international financial architecture. The global financial community believed the implementation of internationally recognized standards and codes will provide a framework to strengthen domestic institutions, identify potential vulnerabilities, and improve transparency. PublicationNepal Report on the Observance of Standards and Codes: Accounting and Auditing(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2015-06) World Bank Group; test; test; test; test; testThis report provides an assessment of accounting, financial reporting and auditing requirements and practices in Nepal. The report uses international financial reporting standards and international standards on auditing as benchmarks and draws on international experience and good practices in the field of accounting and audit to assess the quality of financial reporting and make policy recommendations. The reports on the observance of standards and codes (ROSC) accounting and auditing addresses two strategic objectives in the Country Partnership Strategy FY14-FY18 (poverty reduction and shared prosperity). The report aims to support the Government of Nepal in preparing a country action plan aimed at further enhancing the quality of corporate financial reporting to facilitate improvement of business climate, attract foreign direct investment, and foster business development. The policy recommendations also target small and medium enterprises that form the backbone of Nepal's economy. PublicationTunisia Urban Development and Local Governance Program : Fiduciary Systems Assessment Report(Washington, DC, 2014-06-26) World BankAs part of the preparation of the Tunisia Urban and Local Governance Program (ULGP) using the Program for Results (PforR) instrument of the World Bank, the Bank task team carried out a Fiduciary Systems Assessment (FSA) of the Program in accordance with OP/BP 9.0. Based on the findings of the FSA, it is concluded that Program Fiduciary Systems have the capabilities to provide reasonable assurance that the financing proceeds will be used for intended purposes. However considering the existing weaknesses in Program Fiduciary systems, the residual fiduciary risk rating for the Program is rated as Substantial. The Program will finance a portion of the Government of Tunisia s (GoT) existing program for financing municipal service delivery that involves a combination of Capital Grants, and Loans in addition to the Own Source Revenues generated by the municipalities themselves. The PforR Program intends to reform the system of Capital Grants by making it predictable and based on an allocation formula that is principle based and transparent. It has been agreed with client counterparts that GoT will issue a Decree prior to the start of the Program that will spell out the design and operating rules of the reformed capital grant. Indicative allocations for Capital Grants will be included in the Five Year Plans and indicative allocations will be provided by MoEF in advance of the annual plan preparations. The budget allocations for Capital Grants will be transferred from the Treasury Current Account at the Central Bank (BCT) to the Caisse des Prêts et de Soutien des Collectivités Locales (CPSCL) (referred to as the Caisse), who will act as the Program Manager for the ULGP. Caisse will in turn transfer the grant funds to municipalities in accordance with the operating rules for the Unconditional and Conditional Capital Grants. Preliminary assessment of the Program expenditure framework shows that in addition to the changes in the design of the Capital grant through the proposed decree, additional steps such as publishing the indicative allocations of capital grants in advance and reforming the existing system of multiple ex-ante checks and controls into a coordinated system of ex-post controls are necessary for the efficient implementation of the proposed Program. PublicationSouth Africa : Report on the Observance of Standards and Codes--Accounting and Auditing(Washington, DC, 2013-06) World BankThe main purpose of the South Africa Report on the Observance of Standards and Codes, Accounting and Auditing (ROSC A&A) is to determine reforms that will continue to improve the quality of financial reporting in South Africa. The review, requested by the Minister of Finance, was conducted to assess the status of implementation of policy recommendations in the prior 2003 ROSC A&A report, assess the institutional framework underpinning accounting and auditing practices in comparison with international standards and good practices in order to identify any emerging issues that require strengthening, share good practices adopted in the country, and propose policy recommendations addressing areas that require improvements. Implementation of the policy recommendations will further enhance the quality of financial reporting in the country, a key pillar that contributes to enhancing the business environment and advancement of governance and financial accountability in both the private and public sector entities. The review focuses on private sector. Financial reporting in public sector is assessed under public expenditure and financial accountability framework. PublicationStrategic Plan for Strengthening of Internal Audit in Government of Bihar(Washington, DC, 2012-01) World BankThe Government of Bihar (GOB) has adopted various reform measures to modernize fiscal and financial management such as passing of the Fiscal Responsibility and Budget Management Act, adoption of Government of India's general financial rules and decentralization of financial powers to respective departments with a view to increasing the pace of expenditure and implementation of plan schemes. However, for decentralization to be effective the supporting public financial management systems need to be also modernized. Accordingly, the Government had entrusted a project 'modernization of budget and financial rules and procedures' to Centre for Good Governance (CGG), Hyderabad. The project requires CGG to comprehensively revise the treasury code, financial rules and budget manual, and to provide a roadmap to modernize and strengthen internal audit function in the government. CGG has firstly studied the existing organization structure of the internal audit function in GOB, the skills and capacity of the internal audit staff, the working conditions in the main office and divisional offices, the perception of others about internal audit and so on. They have visited the main office in Patna and the divisional office in Gaya. After identifying the strengths and weaknesses of the system, a road map has been prepared for strengthening the internal audit in the government. PublicationReport on Pilot Study on Migration to Accrual Accounting : Forest and Health Departments of State Government of Madhya Pradesh (India)(Washington, DC, 2010-05) World BankThe objective of this study is to identify gaps between the existing cash based accounting system and the accrual based accounting system to assist Government Accounting Standards Advisory Board (GASAB) to address issues related to Property, Plant and Equipment (PPE) and inventories during actual migration to accrual accounting. This study also includes documentation of operational and implementation issues and suggested solutions to latent problems and road blocks if any so as to provide necessary inputs to GASAB for framing appropriate. Guidelines for migration of Government accounts from cash basis to accrual accounting system. The study is noteworthy that not only statement of financial position for the reporting entity has been prepared but it also discloses physical assets and current liabilities. Maintenance of proper records of various classes of assets (constructed, acquired or donated), inventories, receivables and carry over as prescribed in the financial rules and departmental regulations is a starting point for transition to accrual accounting. PublicationAn Independent Oversight Body for Quality Assurance Review in the Philippines(Washington, DC, 2009-02) World BankThe paper is part of a program to provide support to a major recommendation in the Philippine Review of Standards and Codes on Accounting and Auditing (ROSC-A&A). The ROSC-A&A brought out that there were major improvements in the accounting and auditing scene since the last assessment made in 2001. Substantially complete improvements include the adoption of the international standards for accounting, auditing, and professional ethics. The objects of this program were as follows: First, to develop a strategic plan to provide for the adoption and implementation of a QAR (Quality Assurance Review) program for auditing firms in the Philippines. Second, begin devloping a cooperative arrangement between Philippine regulatory authorities and the accounting professional body, and develop rules and regulations subjecting auditors and/or auditing firms to such a quality assurance review program. This would include administrative steps to be taken by the relevant government authority to initiate this program. Third, to enable the development a medium-term strategic plan for sustainability of the QAR program. The proposed plan should be the product of working closely with the relevant regulatory body (BOA) and PICPA incorporating their inputs in the study. This should ensure their eventual acceptability for adoption and implementation by these entities. PublicationNepal : Public Sector Accounting and Auditing, A Comparison to International Standards(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2007-05) World BankThis assessment of public sector accounting and auditing in Nepal is intended to assist with the implementation of more effective public financial management (PFM) through better quality accounting and public audit processes. It is intended to provide greater stimulus for more cost-effective outcomes of government spending. The specific objectives are (a) to provide the country's accounting and audit authorities and other interested stakeholders with a common well-based knowledge as to where local practices stand in accordance with the internationally developed standards of fi nancial reporting and audit; (b) to assess the prevailing variances; (c) to chart paths to reduce the variances; and (d) to provide a continuing basis for measuring improvements. PublicationBangladesh : Public Sector Accounting and Auditing, A Comparison to International Standards(Washington, DC, 2007-05) World BankThis assessment of public sector accounting and auditing for Bangladesh is meant generally to help implement more effective Public Financial Management (PFM) through better quality accounting and public audit processes in Bangladesh and to provide greater stimulus for more cost effective outcomes of government spending. More specific objectives are (a) to provide the country's accounting and audit authorities and other interested stakeholders with a common well-founded knowledge as to where local practices stand against the internationally developed norms of financial reporting and auditing; (b) to assess prevailing variances; (c) to chart paths for improving the accordance with international standards; and (d) to provide a continuing basis for measuring improvements.