Private Sector Development, Privatization, and Industrial Policy

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  • Publication
    Private Sector Opportunities for a Green and Resilient Reconstruction in Ukraine: Synthesis Report
    (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2023-11-02) World Bank
    In March 2023, the Second Rapid Damage and Needs Assessment (RDNA2) identified $411 billion worth of investments required for Ukraine’s reconstruction. The World Bank Group’s new report “Private Sector Opportunities for a Green and Resilient Reconstruction in Ukraine”, developed in cooperation with Ukraine’s government, assesses the potential for private financing to meet these needs under both a status quo scenario and a scenario with reforms and other sectoral interventions.
  • Publication
    Creating Markets in Sri Lanka : Private Sector-Led Inclusive Growth from Islands of Excellence: Country Private Sector Diagnostic
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2022-07) International Finance Corporation
    Sri Lanka is a country of paradoxes. With the lowest poverty rates, best social indicators, and highest per capita income in South Asia, Sri Lanka’s economic performance since independence had generally been hailed as a success before the current debt crisis. However, past performance occurred amidst many distortions and an economy less open than its peers, largely reflecting the strong involvement of the state in the economy. Even if this interventionist model of economic policy and the presence of many state-owned enterprises (SOEs) served the country well through the years of conflict and their aftermath, it is no longer sustainable. Indeed, after the rapid growth of the peace dividend in the years post-2009, the economy has faltered and progress on social indicators has stagnated. Many of market distortions remain and have been exacerbated by COVID-19. Understanding how, despite these handicaps, Sri Lanka achieved positive economic and social outcomes in the past provides the building blocks of a realistic, forward-looking growth strategy, one of the objectives of this Country Private Sector Diagnostic (CPSD). The research for this report was conducted prior to the current crisis, but the recommendations remain relevant to implementing public policies that will support private sector-led inclusive and sustainable growth.
  • Publication
    Creating Markets in Jordan: Volume II, Sector Assessments - Country Private Sector Diagnostic
    (Washington, DC, 2021-11) International Finance Corporation
    The Jordan Country Private Sector Diagnostic (CPSD) is a joint International Finance Corporation (IFC)-World Bank report that highlights the constraints as well as the opportunities facing the private sector in Jordan. It considers three sectors—tourism, logistics, and information and communication technology (ICT) - and the potential they offer for greater private sector contributions to the Jordanian economy, as well as the obstacles that they face from general or sector-specific policies and regulations. The CPSD also offers concrete recommendations to address some of these constraints. Although this report was largely prepared prior to the COVID-19 outbreak, its analysis and recommendations remain as, if not more, valid in the context of the pandemic and of an eventual recovery. A dynamic and resilient private sector is necessary if Jordan is to break the low-growth, high-unemployment trajectory it finds itself in today. The CPSD argues that tackling some of the major obstacles facing the private sector is essential to firm performance, investment, and productivity. These actions are as critical in times of crisis and especially afterwards to pave the way for a vigorous and sustainable recovery. Similarly, the sectors assessed by the CPSD continue to hold promise for the country. The pandemic has underscored the important role that digitalization, a strong ICT infrastructure, and supportive services have in creating a resilient economy and business continuity. E-commerce and logistics capabilities and services are an area put forward by the CPSD as an opportunity for Jordan in the coming years; they have boomed during the current crisis and are expected to be one of the post-pandemic growth sectors. Conversely, tourism, which had been experiencing a strong rebound in Jordan over the past few years, is one of the sectors hardest hit across the globe by the COVID-19 crisis. In Jordan the sector accounts for about 19.2 percent of gross domestic product and 32 percent of exports. Crafting a strategy that effectively addresses the many obstacles that prevent the tourism sector from attaining its potential is a necessary investment for a strong recovery - and a good use of what is likely to be a transitional period until travel re-commences.
  • Publication
    Thailand Manufacturing Firm Productivity Report
    (World Bank, Bangkok, 2020-06-17) World Bank
    Thailand is an enduring development success story. Between the late 1960s and mid-1990s, strong and sustained economic growth propelled the country from low-income to upper-middle-income status. To achieve high-income status by 2037, the authorities will need to draw on the experiences of other upper-middle-income countries that have successfully completed the transition, as well as those that continue to struggle. The Coronavirus (COVID-19) outbreak has severely impacted growth in Thailand, with the economy expected to contract in 2020 amid heightened uncertainty surrounding the path of the pandemic. This report focuses on the manufacturing sector builds on a framework that emphasizes the microeconomic and macroeconomic linkages of the sources of productivity growth. In line with this framework, Chapter 1 begins with an overview of Thailand’s productivity dynamics at the macroeconomic level and identifies the causes of its slowing GDP growth rate.7 Chapter 2 analyzes the characteristics of Thai manufacturing firms and sub-sector productivity dynamics, revealing the drivers of firm productivity and distinguishing the relative contributions of within-firm effects, between-firm effects, and market dynamism. Chapter 3 evaluates the impact of competition on firm productivity by comparing market entry and exit indicators with price markups. Chapter 4 concludes with a set of policy recommendations designed to boost firm productivity in Thailand’s manufacturing sector.
  • Publication
    Benchmarking Madagascar’s Free Zone Competitiveness
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2020-06-17) World Bank
    The Government of Mauritius is implementing the Mauritius Africa Strategy, which is focused on positioning Mauritius as a bridge for investment and trade in order to open new markets in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). A cornerstone of this strategy is sharing the successful experience of Mauritius in providing an attractive business environment bundled with good infrastructure and services in order to accelerate investments in trade, services and manufacturing in SSA countries. This technical note is in response to a request from both the MAF and Government of Mauritius and the EDBM and GoM for: i) an update of the current status of the SEZ regime in Madagascar i.e. policy, legal, regulatory and institutional framework and current proposals being considered by the GoM as well as opportunities for improvement, ii) benchmarking Madagascar’s main competitors in the global textile and apparel markets (such as Bangladesh, Ethiopia and Kenya) and comparing their SEZ regimes for textile and garment zones to identify competitiveness strengths and weaknesses and lessons learned, and iii) outline opportunities for successful development of the proposed zone for consideration by both the GoM and the MAF and Government of Mauritius.
  • Publication
    Creating Markets in Burkina Faso: Growing Burkina Faso’s Private Sector and Harnessing it to Bolster Economic Resilience
    (International Finance Corporation, Washington, DC, 2019-07-01) World Bank; International Finance Corporation
    A small landlocked economy in the heart of West Africa’s French-speaking Sahel, Burkina Faso is characterized by its modest economic size, with a rapid population growth, with one of the highest per capita birth rates in the world. Burkina Faso needs to create 300,000 jobs annually to match its demographic growth, while about ninety percent of its workers are in the informal sector. Despite sustained robust economic growth over the past two decades driven by cotton and gold exports, private investment is low. Compounding the considerable development challenges that it faces, Burkina Faso is currently confronted by acute security and climatic threats, together with emerging fiscal risks. This country private sector diagnostic (CPSD) therefore investigates whether opportunities exist for the private sector to contribute more substantially to Burkina Faso’s development. The CPSD proposes a platform for action aimed at boosting Burkina Faso’s development through greater private sector investment. The remainder of the report provides an overview of: (i) the private sector environment; (ii) the cross-cutting constraints to the private sector; (iii) the critical enabling sector bottlenecks to the private sector; (iv) the opportunities for the private sector; and (v) a series of priority private sector focused recommendations.
  • Publication
    Creating Markets in Morocco: A Second Generation of Reforms - Boosting Private Sector Growth, Job Creation and Skills Upgrading
    (International Finance Corporation, Washington, DC, 2019-06-01) International Finance Corporation; World Bank
    Morocco has steered significant resources towards large investments in economic sectors identified as strategic to growth, and for increased productivity and value addition. Despite Morocco’s strikingly high investment rate, one of the highest in the world at an average of thirty-four percent of gross domestic product (GDP) annually since the mid-2000s, the returns in economic growth, job creation and productivity, have been disappointing. The Moroccan economy has performed particularly poorly in terms of job creation. A more vibrant private sector is needed to create more jobs. This CPSD identifies policy recommendations and investment opportunities that would foster job creation by the formal private sector and improve labor supply in skills that would anchor Morocco as an emerging economy, to continue its path of growth, and to move into higher value-added and innovative sectors.
  • Publication
    Creating Markets in Nepal: Country Private Sector Diagnostic
    (International Finance Corporation, Washington, DC, 2018-11) International Finance Corporation
    The purpose of this Country Private Sector Diagnostic (CPSD) is to assess opportunities and constraints holding back private sector growth. It conducts a diagnostic of the main cross-cutting constraints to private sector competitiveness and growth through data analysis, synthesis of existing research and stakeholder consultations. This exercise also identifies sectors that could play a key role in enabling Nepal’s growth, by either enabling other sectors or capitalizing on Nepal’s inherent comparative advantage to tap global markets. Sector deep dives help identify private sector constraints specific to these sectors, including sector-specific manifestations of cross-cutting constraints. The CPSD analysis finally identifies key recommendations on policy reforms and investments in public goods (including public-private partnerships) that could enable growth of a competitive private sector.
  • Publication
    Looking Beyond the Horizon: A Case Study of PVH’s Commitment in Ethiopia’s Hawassa Industrial Park
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2017-06) Mihretu, Mamo; Llobet, Gabriela
    The story of how the PVH Corp. (referred to throughout this document as PVH) came to leada group of its top suppliers to build factories and a fabric mill in Ethiopia’s Hawassa IndustrialPark (HIP) is the study of a strong collaboration between a private company looking to optimizeits business model and a government aiming to transform its economy through global strategic repositioning. The success of this story hinges upon the intersection of their goals and a shared vision of development that includes a strong commitment to social and environmental goals.PVH was motivated to invest in Ethiopia to respond to shifts in the global apparel sector, its growing desire to retool its business model and to address its concerns about compliance with social and environmental standards in its traditional sourcing locations. PVH had decided to rethink its business model and to look beyond the horizon towards a new region in which tolocate its manufacturing base. To have better oversight and enforcement, PVH moved to adopta fully integrated vertical supply chain, including direct investment in one of the manufacturingfacilities.Key to Ethiopia’s success in attracting this important investor was the government’s ability and willingness to strategically evaluate its foreign direct investment (FDI) needs and strategy and to take steps to evolve into an attractive location for higher value-added export-oriented investment.This case study explains a private investor’s site selection process. It assesses the elements PVH prioritized when deciding to commit to Ethiopia, and specifically to HIP. The case study further assesses the government of Ethiopia’s strategy, level of readiness, interest, and commitment, and sets out some key challenges that lie ahead for this partnership. The case study is structured in ten sections. Section second offers a brief background on the textile and apparel industry, including an explanation of its value chain. It provides a brief corporate profile of PVH and its current global footprint and business model. Section third describes the site selection process: PVH´s initial explorations in Africa, its consideration of several African countries, and its initial conversations and negotiations with Ethiopian authorities. Section fourth discusses the Ethiopian government’s strategy to attract and expand export-oriented investments, including efforts to bolster the country’s competitiveness. This section attempts to offer some explanation why Ethiopia was the right fit at the right time and its level of readiness to land such an investment. It provides a brief profile of PVH’s Africa point of entry, the HIP. Section sixth covers the challenges that lie ahead for this-project---potential setbacks that will affect not only the consolidation and growth of the textiles and apparel industry in Ethiopia, but also the government’s vision of becoming the “manufacturing powerhouse of Africa.” Section eighth concludes with some key lessons from PVH’s decision to invest in Ethiopia. Such lessons may be relevant to countries or regions interested inattracting FDI and may be of particular interest to other African countries in their quest to attract major investments in the textile and apparel sector.
  • Publication
    Assessing the Potential for the Electronics and ICT Manufacturing Industry in Ethiopia
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2016-09-30) Zhihua Zeng, Douglas; Kayonde, Susan
    The report includes the analysis of global Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) and electronics value chains, an assessment of Ethiopia’s current and potential participation in these regional and global networks, and an analysis of the country’s competitive positions in specific segments of the sector. The findings of these efforts have been used to provide strategic direction for the development of the sector and to draft an action plan and road map to implement the sectoral strategy in the short, medium, and long term. The analysis shows that the overall electronics and ICT industry is currently playing only a modest role in the Ethiopian economy, with a relatively limited presence of companies and commercial activity. The analysis also illustrates important differences in the competitive position across the various segments analyzed. In conclusion, the analysis has shown that the ICT and electronics industry has potential in Ethiopia, with a presence already emerging in selected segments.