Private Sector Development, Privatization, and Industrial Policy

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  • Publication
    Creating Markets in Kazakhstan: Country Private Sector Diagnostic
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2017-11) World Bank Group
    The first section identifies the overlaps between Kazakhstan's development objectives and the goals of IFC's new strategy of creating markets for the private sector. Kazakhstan's development objectives are to increase diversification, employment, and productivity. These are based on the government's 2030 Strategy and 2020 Plan, as well as World Bank Group (WBG) country assessments. Operationalizing the IFC 3.0 strategy requires identifying the markets with the greatest potential to help meet these objectives. The approach amounts to: (a) identifying those sectors with the greatest market potential which, if realized, would have the greatest impact on development objectives; (b) providing an assessment of what is preventing the realization of market potential; and (c) indicating the IFC and WB activities that should be the top priorities to help meet this double bottom-line of development impact and market creation. The assessment in the second section indicates that the sectors with the greatest unrealized development and market potential are food-grains, meat and poultry, and cross-Kazakhstan transport and logistics. The market potential assessment relies on quantitative tools (multiplier models, product space and competitiveness benchmarking), expert interviews and a survey of policy reports. The assessment in the second section indicates that the sectors with the greatest unrealized development and market potential are food-grains, meat and poultry, and cross-Kazakhstan transport and logistics. The market potential assessment relies on quantitative tools (multiplier models, product space and competitiveness benchmarking), expert interviews and a survey of policy reports. The last section summarizes the priority horizontal reforms, sector-specific policies, and promising sectors with the potential for expansion and greater firm entry. The first part of this section is intended to inform the high-level dialogue between WBG management and Kazakhstani authorities. The second part is essentially the sector-wide measures without which private sector investments will not be forthcoming, recognizing that the aim is to create markets and expand private sector development. The third part identifies promising areas where private sector actors could play a catalytic role, recognizing the ease of playing such roles differs by sector: it is greatest for grains, somewhat less for meat, and least for transport and logistics.
  • Publication
    Enhancing Competitiveness in Sri Lanka
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2016-06) World Bank Group
    Sri Lanka needs to address new challenges if it is to sustain its strong record of economic growth and poverty reduction. The country has in many respects been a development success story, with average growth exceeding 6 percent and a threefold decline in poverty using the national poverty line over the past 10 years. However, low productivity, high reliance on non-tradable sectors and a stale export basket highlight the need to enhance private sector competitiveness as a way to create one million new jobs. The Government of Sri Lanka (GoSL) has recognized the need to adopt a policy agenda that strengthens the competitiveness of the country’s private sector in order to achieve inclusive and sustainable growth. The new Government has emphasized the need to realize Sri Lanka’s trade potential as a way to accelerate the transformation of the economy and generate new and more attractive opportunities for Sri Lanka’s labor force.Unleashing the competitiveness potential of Sri Lankan enterprises will require addressing a wide range of factors. this note focuses on opportunities to improve areas directly impacting the competitiveness of the private sector, including streamlining the regulations governing the activities of the private sector to reduce the cost of doing business; strengthening trade policies to eliminate biases against exports; enhancing trade facilitation to reduce the costs and time it takes to export; enhancing the ability of the country to attract, retain and integrate FDI; enhancing innovation and entrepreneurship and strengthening accessibility to financial services. It is important to note, that there are small islands of Research and Development (R&D) progress in Sri Lanka. Going forward, as Sri Lanka aspires to become a higher middle income economy driven by higher addedvalue exports, major reforms will be required in its investment climate; investment, innovation andtrade policies and the efficiency of the institutions governing the activities of domestic and foreign firms.This note summarizes the main findings of this work and outlines options forimplementation of reforms needed.