Private Sector Development, Privatization, and Industrial Policy

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  • Publication
    Private Sector Opportunities for a Green and Resilient Reconstruction in Ukraine: Synthesis Report
    (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2023-11-02) World Bank
    In March 2023, the Second Rapid Damage and Needs Assessment (RDNA2) identified $411 billion worth of investments required for Ukraine’s reconstruction. The World Bank Group’s new report “Private Sector Opportunities for a Green and Resilient Reconstruction in Ukraine”, developed in cooperation with Ukraine’s government, assesses the potential for private financing to meet these needs under both a status quo scenario and a scenario with reforms and other sectoral interventions.
  • Publication
    Creating Markets in Albania: Taking Advantage of New Trade and Investment Opportunities for a More Robust Private Sector - Country Private Sector Diagnostic
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2022-06) International Finance Corporation
    Despite a challenging transition period and a string of adverse shocks, in recent decades Albania has made major strides in raising per capita income and integrating into the world economy. A dynamic private sector has become the engine of Albania’s economic development, and its increasing role continues to offer opportunities for expanding the country’s economic base and promoting faster and more diversified export-oriented growth. Albania is endowed with considerable economic assets, including a strategic geographical position, exceptional natural beauty, and abundant renewable and nonrenewable resources. A politically stable environment, improving governance indicators, and a record of dependable macroeconomic policies have supported the process of European Union (EU) accession, which offers a wide array of opportunities for the development of the Albanian private sector. Because a small domestic labor pool and consumer market limit the potential for economies of scale, sustaining Albania’s economic expansion will require intensifying its integration with the global economy. Despite decades of progress, Albania continues to face serious structural and policy challenges. The country’s economic expansion has not been matched by commensurate improvements in productivity. In this context, the World Bank Group has prepared the following country private sector diagnostic (CPSD) to assist the authorities in their efforts to leverage Albania’s geographic location, natural assets, and improved institutional and policy framework to promote diversification, competitiveness, and robust private-sector-led growth. The analysis highlights the importance of improving the business environment while stepping up investments in technology and innovation. The report explores three critical sectors for accelerating and diversifying growth: agribusiness and food processing, tourism, and automotive manufacturing.
  • Publication
    Paths of Productivity Growth in Poland: A Firm-Level Perspective
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2021-10-31) World Bank
    After a long period of economic transformation that included introducing a series of market-oriented reforms and joining the European Union (EU), Poland was one of the fastest-growing economies in the world by 2020. This report investigates differences in productivity dynamics across economic segments and attempts to derive policy recommendations to improve the Polish economy’s productivity performance. First, the authors estimate firm-level total factor productivity (TFP), compute labor productivity indices, and analyze the main productivity patterns between 2009 and 2019. Second, the authors decompose aggregate productivity performance into the within, between, and net entry components using the Melitz Polanec decomposition method to understand the underlying response behind the observed productivity growth in Polish sectors and industries. The efficiency of resource allocation (measured by the between effect) worsened over time in manufacturing and was responsible for the sector’s productivity slowdown while allocative efficiency gains improved productivity performance in construction and services. To boost Polish productivity, the empirical evidence provided in the report indicates certain areas for policy actions as well as a few directions for necessary further investigation.
  • Publication
    Reforming Business Registration in Greece: A Case Study
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2021-09-13) Conserva, Nicolas; Zanelli, Alessio; Muco, Sagita
    This case study explores the reforms of the business registration process implemented in Greece since 2005. It identifies lessons that can be valuable for public servants and policymakers in other countries, especially those who are considering reforming their business registration systems. The case study can also be useful to Greek policymakers and practitioners as they reform other areas of the business environment. In 2004, Greek entrepreneurs had to complete several procedures and go through a burdensome court-based process to register a business. Research suggests that streamlining business registration has the potential to support entrepreneurship, encourage the creation of new firms, and reduce informality, but of course needs to be considered in the backdrop of the broader business climate. From this perspective, establishing one-stop shops facilitates the registration of firms, which may be deterred by complex entry regulations.
  • Publication
    Creating Markets in the Kyrgyz Republic: Unleashing the Private Sector to Rebuild Development Success - Country Private Sector Diagnostic
    (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2021-05) International Finance Corporation
    This country private sector diagnostic (CPSD) for the Kyrgyz Republic assesses the barriers and opportunities for a more forceful development of the private sector in the country. Between 2000 and 2019, gross domestic product (GDP) growth rate averaged 4.4 percent, enabling the Kyrgyz Republic’s ascension to lower-middle-income country status by 2014. Economic growth has been unstable as its sources lacked diversity and were vulnerable to external shocks. Economic growth has been unstable as its sources lacked diversity and were vulnerable to external shocks. If the Kyrgyz Republic wants to inaugurate a new era of faster, more sustainable economic growth, it must more aggressively develop its private sector to support economic diversification and improve productivity.
  • Publication
    Can Venture Capital and Private Equity Work for You? Six Simple Steps to Guide SMEs in the Western Balkans
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2020-04-02) Bacaj, Zana; Hirata Barros, Ana Cristina
    Access to finance is ranked as one of the constraints on businesses in the Western Balkans region (Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Kosovo, Montenegro, North Macedonia, and Serbia). Across the region, up to 99 percent of enterprises are small or medium-sized (SMEs). SMEs are a primary source of economic growth, innovation, and most importantly, job creation in the region. To attract funding from investors and grow their businesses successfully entrepreneurs need the necessary skills to become investment ready. However, in the Western Balkans, entrepreneurs lack investment readiness for different reasons, including lack of knowledge about the availability of external sources of finance; hesitation to surrender partial ownership and control of their business; and lack of knowledge of how to sell their ideas to potential investors. This guide is targeted at SME owners and managers of SMEs in the Western Balkans who are interested in developing their businesses and are considering whether venture capital (VC) and private equity (PE) could be an option.
  • Publication
    Czech Republic: Assessment of the SME Policy Mix
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2019-10-01) World Bank Group
    This report provides an assessment of the policies devoted to supporting small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in the Czech Republic. It presents an original analysis of all national-level SME-related policy instruments, totaling 93 instruments operational from 2013 to 2017 and disbursing 108.5 billion CZK (4.71 billion USD), using an analytical framework that compares the SME policy mix to the country needs (see Annex 1 for framework and methodology). The analysis integrates three interrelated segments: 1) A country needs assessment to determine the national needs for SME policies. The needs assessment included a macro-level analysis of the Czech Republic's performance in productivity and trade; an analysis of national- and firm-level innovation performance; a firm-level analysis of productivity across firm sizes, sectors, and regions (leveraging original data from the Czech statistics office); and an analysis of market and institutional conditions that influence resource allocation and firm productivity. 2) A policy mix analysis to determine if the Czech Republic's SME policy mix matches the needs identified in the country needs assessment. The policy mix analysis included a review of relevant SME policy stakeholders, institutions, and governance; a review of national-level strategies; identification of the characteristics of SME policies instruments (administering agency, mechanism of support, beneficiaries, etc).; and a cluster analysis to evaluate the internal consistency of the policy mix and identify overlaps. 3) Recommended areas for policy action were developed using the needs assessment and policy mix analysis to improve the effectiveness of the policy mix and the business environment.
  • Publication
    Towards a Private Sector led Growth Model: Bosnia and Herzegovina Innovation and Entrepreneurship Assessment
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2019-04-20) Aridi, Anwar; Ong Lopez, Anne; Aridi, Anwar
    The growth landscape of Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH) is undermined by adverse productivity developments and weak private sector development. BiH is still finding a pathway to rebalance its current public sector-led growth model to a private sector-led one. In this light, enhancing innovation and entrepreneurship (I and E) is a key priority for BiH. This report provides a comprehensive assessment of the current I and E landscape in BiH and offers a roadmap for innovation policy reforms. It showcases current I and E outcomes in BiH and provides analysis of whether current support policies and programs in BiH (including public budget allocations) address existing market failures. The report concludes that recent policy measures have not effectively addressed BiH's needs for supporting I and E, specifically in terms of access to skills, ease of business regulations, and predictability of business environment. To this end, this report offers a roadmap for policy reforms as well as suggestions for pilot programs.
  • Publication
    Poland Structural Policies for Competitiveness: Position Paper for Regulatory Policy
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2018-08-01) World Bank Group
    Regulatory policy is essential for economic growth and social welfare. Regulations are the rules set by the state to govern the daily life of citizens and businesses. Regulatory policy, the prerogative to establish these rules, is a key lever of state power. Poland has made progress in improving the quality of its regulatory processes, but important challenges remain. High quality regulations are essential for a sound legal framework based on certitude, legality, and transparency. The strategy for responsible development (SRD) recognizes the importance of regulation to stimulate economic activity in Poland. As the main policy document for economic transformation, the SRD identifies shortcomings in the current development model and makes proposals on how to address them. The strategy offers a good starting point to identify areas in which the World Bank could engage with the Government of Poland to further support the efforts to strengthen a sound regulatory environment for business. This position paper aims at: (i) assessing some of the current efforts made by the Government of Poland in terms of regulatory policy, particularly affecting business; and (ii) identifying areas of potential engagement between the World Bank and the Government of Poland.
  • Publication
    Creating Markets in Kazakhstan: Country Private Sector Diagnostic
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2017-11) World Bank Group
    The first section identifies the overlaps between Kazakhstan's development objectives and the goals of IFC's new strategy of creating markets for the private sector. Kazakhstan's development objectives are to increase diversification, employment, and productivity. These are based on the government's 2030 Strategy and 2020 Plan, as well as World Bank Group (WBG) country assessments. Operationalizing the IFC 3.0 strategy requires identifying the markets with the greatest potential to help meet these objectives. The approach amounts to: (a) identifying those sectors with the greatest market potential which, if realized, would have the greatest impact on development objectives; (b) providing an assessment of what is preventing the realization of market potential; and (c) indicating the IFC and WB activities that should be the top priorities to help meet this double bottom-line of development impact and market creation. The assessment in the second section indicates that the sectors with the greatest unrealized development and market potential are food-grains, meat and poultry, and cross-Kazakhstan transport and logistics. The market potential assessment relies on quantitative tools (multiplier models, product space and competitiveness benchmarking), expert interviews and a survey of policy reports. The assessment in the second section indicates that the sectors with the greatest unrealized development and market potential are food-grains, meat and poultry, and cross-Kazakhstan transport and logistics. The market potential assessment relies on quantitative tools (multiplier models, product space and competitiveness benchmarking), expert interviews and a survey of policy reports. The last section summarizes the priority horizontal reforms, sector-specific policies, and promising sectors with the potential for expansion and greater firm entry. The first part of this section is intended to inform the high-level dialogue between WBG management and Kazakhstani authorities. The second part is essentially the sector-wide measures without which private sector investments will not be forthcoming, recognizing that the aim is to create markets and expand private sector development. The third part identifies promising areas where private sector actors could play a catalytic role, recognizing the ease of playing such roles differs by sector: it is greatest for grains, somewhat less for meat, and least for transport and logistics.