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Publication(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2019-11-13) Aridi, Anwar ; Kapil, Natasha ; Aridi, AnwarMany high-income and developing countries have established agencies to promote innovation. This study examines the origin and evolution, organizational structure, policy interventions, delivery challenges, and evaluation mechanisms of 13 innovation agencies in developing countries and one case (SPRING in Singapore) for comparison purposes. This study does not assume that the only approach to improving innovation lies in a dedicated agency – each innovation system is governed differently and the same intervention may have very different results in different contexts. Rather, our goal is to capture how these agencies dealt with the major challenges that confront establishing an innovation agency in a developing country context, where innovation is often hampered by significant market, coordination, and institutional failures, investments in innovation tend to be limited, and the capabilities required for effective innovation are often lacking. The analysis is presented according to seven building blocks that emerged from the analysis of the cases’ patterns and dynamics as pre-requisites for the success of innovation agencies, including a clear but adaptable mission, capable staff, effective governance and management structures, diagnostic-based interventions, robust monitoring and evaluation (M&E), sustainable funding, and strategic partnerships and networks. A diagnosis of NIS gaps and global trends is required to design policy interventions.
Towards a Private Sector led Growth Model: Bosnia and Herzegovina Innovation and Entrepreneurship Assessment(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2019-04-20) Aridi, Anwar ; Ong Lopez, Anne ; Aridi, AnwarThe growth landscape of Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH) is undermined by adverse productivity developments and weak private sector development. BiH is still finding a pathway to rebalance its current public sector-led growth model to a private sector-led one. In this light, enhancing innovation and entrepreneurship (I and E) is a key priority for BiH. This report provides a comprehensive assessment of the current I and E landscape in BiH and offers a roadmap for innovation policy reforms. It showcases current I and E outcomes in BiH and provides analysis of whether current support policies and programs in BiH (including public budget allocations) address existing market failures. The report concludes that recent policy measures have not effectively addressed BiH's needs for supporting I and E, specifically in terms of access to skills, ease of business regulations, and predictability of business environment. To this end, this report offers a roadmap for policy reforms as well as suggestions for pilot programs.