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Publication(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2019-11-13) Aridi, Anwar ; Kapil, Natasha ; Aridi, AnwarMany high-income and developing countries have established agencies to promote innovation. This study examines the origin and evolution, organizational structure, policy interventions, delivery challenges, and evaluation mechanisms of 13 innovation agencies in developing countries and one case (SPRING in Singapore) for comparison purposes. This study does not assume that the only approach to improving innovation lies in a dedicated agency – each innovation system is governed differently and the same intervention may have very different results in different contexts. Rather, our goal is to capture how these agencies dealt with the major challenges that confront establishing an innovation agency in a developing country context, where innovation is often hampered by significant market, coordination, and institutional failures, investments in innovation tend to be limited, and the capabilities required for effective innovation are often lacking. The analysis is presented according to seven building blocks that emerged from the analysis of the cases’ patterns and dynamics as pre-requisites for the success of innovation agencies, including a clear but adaptable mission, capable staff, effective governance and management structures, diagnostic-based interventions, robust monitoring and evaluation (M&E), sustainable funding, and strategic partnerships and networks. A diagnosis of NIS gaps and global trends is required to design policy interventions.
Republic of Armenia Export-led Industrial Development Strategy: Implementation Review and Recommendations on New Toolset(Washington, DC, 2015-06) World BankThe lessons learned from the implications of the global crisis for the Armenian economy led the Government of Armenia to refine its approach to economic development policy. The business environment, the market structure, and the incentive pattern had not fostered reallocation of resources into more productive areas or the emergence of internationally competitive products and services. Despite numerous initiatives and multiple efforts, there was no holistic approach or actionable roadmap for supporting private sector development. The pressing need to restore economic growth despite a small domestic market led the Armenian government to search for new sources of growth in export-oriented industries. At the end of 2011, the Government of Armenia adopted its export-led industrial development strategy. The strategy set as targets improving the general business environment and sector-specific initiatives to address market failures and expand exports. The strategy builds on both a general (crosscutting) and an industry-customized toolset.