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PublicationCreating Markets in Ethiopia: Sustaining Progress Towards Industrialization(International Finance Corporation, Washington, DC, 2019-03-20) World Bank; International Finance CorporationEthiopia has made impressive strides along its developmental path. Job creation is now the critical development challenge, raising the importance of the private sector agenda. After more than a decade of sustained public sector-led growth, the government is revising its growth strategy to allow for a much greater role for the private sector in driving growth and job creation. Broadening the base for job creation beyond light manufacturing toward a wider range of high productivity agricultural and services activities will help to overcome the uneven spatial distribution of manufacturing jobs across the country. Ethiopia has a number of advantages that it can leverage to attract the investment needed for job creation. These include rapidly improving transport and energy infrastructure, low labor costs, a large and growing domestic market, cheap power, an ideal climate, and preferential market access to the European Union, the United States, and other major markets. The purpose of the Ethiopia country private sector diagnostic (CPSD) is to support the transition to a private sector- driven growth model that advances the country’s development objectives and, in particular, delivers the necessary jobs. It identifies investment opportunities that can materialize in the short term, and the reforms that are needed to enable these opportunities to emerge. It also discusses how specific actions by the public sector, in collaboration with the private sector, in filling gaps in public investment, reforming business regulations and trade policy, addressing market failures, and enhancing the efficiency of key backbone services and sectors, while tackling gender inequalities, can fully unleash the potential of private sector investment. PublicationCreating Markets in Rwanda: Transforming for the Jobs of Tomorrow(International Finance Corporation, Washington, DC, 2019-03) International Finance CorporationRwanda has made unsurmountable strides along its development path. Rwanda has placed among the world’s fastest-growing economies, climbing the development ladder from second-poorest in the world in 1994 to sit ahead of nineteen other countries. Today, job creation lies at the heart of Rwanda’s development challenge. The government of Rwanda (GoR) recognizes the urgency of creating new jobs. The new thirty-year Vision for the period up to 2050, which is currently being finalized, elaborates the country’s long-term development goals. The core of transformation for prosperity is developing high-value and competitive sectors, to transition the population and economy from subsistence agriculture toward industry and high-skilled services. The purpose of the Rwanda country privates sector diagnostic (CPSD) is to identify market opportunities and constraints in sectors that advance the country’s development objectives. By assessing the landscape of private sector investment in the country, the CPSD identifies specific constraints to private sector investment and productivity growth, concrete opportunities that could materialize in the short term, and the reforms that will enable this materialization. It then discusses how specific actions by the public sector in collaboration with the private sector by filling gaps in public investment, reforming regulations, and addressing market failures could unleash sectors’ private investment potential.