Private Sector Development, Privatization, and Industrial Policy

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Sub-Saharan Africa

Sub-Saharan Africa, home to more than 1 billion people, half of whom will be under 25 years old by 2050, is a diverse ...

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  • Publication
    Creating Markets in Uganda: Growth through the Private Sector and Trade - Country Private Sector Diagnostic
    (Washington, DC, 2022-02) International Finance Corporation
    This Country Private Sector Diagnostic (CPSD) investigates the potential for greater private sector investment to meet some of Uganda's development challenges. At least 600,000 Ugandans enter the labor market every year, making for a workforce that is increasingly younger and urban based. To address the country’s simultaneous productivity and job challenge requires a focus on growth in sectors that can leverage demand from abroad, are labor intensive, and low skilled. Three sectors hold promise in this regard: agribusiness, which is important for productivity, employment, and export growth; energy as an enabler of overall productivity; and housing because of its role in fueling growth in the labor-intensive construction sector and alleviating the demographic pressures that rapid urbanization puts on Ugandan cities. Within the agribusiness sector, the CPSD considers three of the most promising value chains—fish, dairy, and maize—and undertakes a more disaggregated assessment of the environment for private investment.
  • Publication
    Creating Markets in Malawi: The Road to Recovery : Turning Crisis into Economic Opportunity - Country Private Sector Diagnostic
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2021-06) International Finance Corporation
    Malawi is at a turning point in its political, social, and economic trajectory. Lazarus Chakwera was sworn in as Malawi’s sixth president in June 2020. This marked a historic moment: the first time in Africa that an opposition candidate won a presidential election following initial results being overturned. After widespread unrest prior to the election, Malawians, especially the youth, have been demanding greater accountability, an end to corruption, and tangible progress on eradicating persistent poverty levels that exceed 70 percent of the population. The average gross national income (GNI) of a Malawian is the third lowest in the world, just US$380 as of 2019. The Chakwera administration will need to find a way to unify the country’s fractured political landscape and deliver on development promises. On top of these challenges, the new administration must also navigate the ongoing and evolving economic shocks of the COVID-19 pandemic. Gross domestic product (GDP) growth expectations for 2020 have been lowered from 4.8 percent to 0.8 percent. Recent efforts to build fiscal and institutional resilience have helped but need to be strengthened. The pandemic’s fallout has weakened the country’s macroeconomic foundations, and the overall risk of debt distress is now high. Meanwhile, human capital gains are at risk. Poverty reduction is expected to stagnate, and overall poverty could potentially worsen. The pandemic will likely exacerbate existing inequalities in economic opportunities for women. Women-owned firms, for example, are primarily concentrated in informal agriculture and services, sectors that lack basic social protections to buffer against economic distress. Female farmers, for example, generally have lower access to productive inputs, information, and liquidity than male farmers, so in times of crisis, their farm productivity and food security can be hit harder.
  • Publication
    Creating Markets in Kenya: Unleashing Private Sector Dynamism to Achieve Full Potential
    (International Finance Corporation, Washington, DC, 2019-07-31) International Finance Corporation
    Kenya has the opportunities and resources to stimulate sustainable economic growth and development, but its potential has been constrained by under-investment and low firm-level productivity. Altogether, its development has not been sufficiently sustainable or equitable to transform the lives of ordinary citizens. Poverty remains high, with thirty-six percent of Kenyans living under the national poverty line, whereas the richest ten percent of the population receive forty percent of the nation’s income. This country private sector diagnostic (CPSD) sheds light on how the private sector can more effectively contribute to advancing the country’s developmental goals. Applying a sectoral lens, it puts forward operational recommendations highlighting strategic entry points for diversification and growth and addresses key constraints to private sector engagement. It also seeks to inform World Bank and IFC strategies, paving the way for joint programming to create markets and unlock private sector potential.
  • Publication
    Creating Markets in Burkina Faso: Growing Burkina Faso’s Private Sector and Harnessing it to Bolster Economic Resilience
    (International Finance Corporation, Washington, DC, 2019-07-01) World Bank; International Finance Corporation
    A small landlocked economy in the heart of West Africa’s French-speaking Sahel, Burkina Faso is characterized by its modest economic size, with a rapid population growth, with one of the highest per capita birth rates in the world. Burkina Faso needs to create 300,000 jobs annually to match its demographic growth, while about ninety percent of its workers are in the informal sector. Despite sustained robust economic growth over the past two decades driven by cotton and gold exports, private investment is low. Compounding the considerable development challenges that it faces, Burkina Faso is currently confronted by acute security and climatic threats, together with emerging fiscal risks. This country private sector diagnostic (CPSD) therefore investigates whether opportunities exist for the private sector to contribute more substantially to Burkina Faso’s development. The CPSD proposes a platform for action aimed at boosting Burkina Faso’s development through greater private sector investment. The remainder of the report provides an overview of: (i) the private sector environment; (ii) the cross-cutting constraints to the private sector; (iii) the critical enabling sector bottlenecks to the private sector; (iv) the opportunities for the private sector; and (v) a series of priority private sector focused recommendations.
  • Publication
    Creating Markets in Rwanda: Transforming for the Jobs of Tomorrow
    (International Finance Corporation, Washington, DC, 2019-03) International Finance Corporation
    Rwanda has made unsurmountable strides along its development path. Rwanda has placed among the world’s fastest-growing economies, climbing the development ladder from second-poorest in the world in 1994 to sit ahead of nineteen other countries. Today, job creation lies at the heart of Rwanda’s development challenge. The government of Rwanda (GoR) recognizes the urgency of creating new jobs. The new thirty-year Vision for the period up to 2050, which is currently being finalized, elaborates the country’s long-term development goals. The core of transformation for prosperity is developing high-value and competitive sectors, to transition the population and economy from subsistence agriculture toward industry and high-skilled services. The purpose of the Rwanda country privates sector diagnostic (CPSD) is to identify market opportunities and constraints in sectors that advance the country’s development objectives. By assessing the landscape of private sector investment in the country, the CPSD identifies specific constraints to private sector investment and productivity growth, concrete opportunities that could materialize in the short term, and the reforms that will enable this materialization. It then discusses how specific actions by the public sector in collaboration with the private sector by filling gaps in public investment, reforming regulations, and addressing market failures could unleash sectors’ private investment potential.