Items in this collection

Now showing 1 - 5 of 5
  • Publication
    Estimating the Value of Human Capital within the World Bank Wealth Accounting Framework
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2014-06-05) Sall, Chris
    The purpose of this paper is to come up with an estimate for the value of human capital with the World Bank wealth accounting framework for the Latin American and Caribbean Region. The proposed approach draws connections between wealth accounting and the development accounting literature that explores the effects of education and health on human capital, building on previous work by Arrow and coauthors (2012), UNU-IHDP and UNEP (2012), Farreira and Hamilton (2010), Weil (2007), and others. The approach is extended to value the loss of human capital due to air pollution and lack of access to clean water and sanitation. The wealth accounting framework is underpinned by the notion that total wealth is equal to the present value of current and future consumption in a competitive economy with constant returns to scale. The author uses a series of calculations representing the framework for and methodology of his framework. Later in this paper the author breaks down the variables in determining the value of human capital into the following categories: schooling, wages, returns to education, returns to health, survival rate, time period, social discount rate, and volatility. Each variable is accompanied by an explanation of its relevance to the equation. The results are quantified in a series of tables paying attention to each individual variable including comparisons to like studies over different time periods with previously collected data to show emphasis.
  • Publication
    Romania : Diagnostic Review of Consumer Protection and Financial Literacy, Volume 1. Key Finding and Recommendations
    (Washington, DC, 2009-07) World Bank
    The diagnostic review on consumer protection and financial literacy in Romania is the fourth in a World Bank-sponsored pilot program to assess consumer protection and financial literacy in developing and middle-income countries. The objective of this review are three-fold to: (1) refine a set of good practices for assessing consumer protection and financial literacy, including financial literacy; (2) conduct a review of the existing rules and practices in Romania compared to the good practices; and (3) provide recommendations on ways to improve consumer protection and financial literacy in Romania. The diagnostic review was prepared at the request of National Authority for Consumers Protection (ANPC), whose request was endorsed by the Ministry of Economy and Finance. Support was provided by the National Bank of Romania (BNR), which supervises banks and non-bank credit institutions. Further assistance was given by supervisory commissions for securities (CNVM), insurance (CSA) and private pensions (CSSPP). Volume one notes the importance of consumer protection and finical literacy, provides statistics on the size and growth of the retail financial sector in Romania, describes the EU and Romanian strategies on consumer protection and financial literacy, and sets out the key finding and recommendations of the review. Annex one lists all recommendation in the diagnostic review from both volumes and notes which recommendations relate to European Union (EU) Directives or European Commission (EC) recommendations and which are taken from the good practices annex two provides two sample consumer protection code: one for the banking securities, insurance and pensions sectors; and another for non-bank credit institutions. Annex three lists the key lawn and institutions related to financial consumer protection in Romania and annex four indicates which Romanian laws have incorporated the EU Directives on financial consumer protection. Volume two provides: (1) a detailed analysis of the key consumer protection issues in five segments of financial sector - banking, securities, insurance, private pensions, and non-bank credit intuitions; (2) an assessment of the Romanian consumer protection framework and practices compared to the template of good practices; and (4) a brief survey of financial literacy programs worldwide.
  • Publication
    Romania : Diagnostic Review of Consumer Protection and Financial Literacy, Volume 2. Comparison against Good Practices
    (Washington, DC, 2009-07) World Bank
    The diagnostic review on consumer protection and financial literacy in Romania is the fourth in a World Bank-sponsored pilot program to assess consumer protection and financial literacy in developing and middle-income countries. The objective of this review are three-fold to: (1) refine a set of good practices for assessing consumer protection and financial literacy, including financial literacy; (2) conduct a review of the existing rules and practices in Romania compared to the good practices; and (3) provide recommendations on ways to improve consumer protection and financial literacy in Romania. The diagnostic review was prepared at the request of National Authority for Consumers Protection (ANPC), whose request was endorsed by the Ministry of Economy and Finance. Support was provided by the National Bank of Romania (BNR), which supervises banks and non-bank credit institutions. Further assistance was given by supervisory commissions for securities (CNVM), insurance (CSA) and private pensions (CSSPP). Volume one notes the importance of consumer protection and finical literacy, provides statistics on the size and growth of the retail financial sector in Romania, describes the EU and Romanian strategies on consumer protection and financial literacy, and sets out the key finding and recommendations of the review. Annex one lists all recommendation in the diagnostic review from both volumes and notes which recommendations relate to European Union (EU) Directives or European Commission (EC) recommendations and which are taken from the good practices annex two provides two sample consumer protection code: one for the banking securities, insurance and pensions sectors; and another for non-bank credit institutions. Annex three lists the key lawn and institutions related to financial consumer protection in Romania and annex four indicates which Romanian laws have incorporated the EU Directives on financial consumer protection. Volume two provides: (1) a detailed analysis of the key consumer protection issues in five segments of financial sector - banking, securities, insurance, private pensions, and non-bank credit intuitions; (2) an assessment of the Romanian consumer protection framework and practices compared to the template of good practices; and (3) a brief survey of financial literacy programs worldwide.
  • Publication
    Informality in Latin America and the Caribbean
    (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2009-03-01) Loayza, Norman V.; Servén, Luis; Sugawara, Naotaka
    This paper studies the causes and consequences of informality and applies the analysis to countries in Latin America and the Caribbean. It starts with a discussion on the definition and measures of informality, as well as on the reasons why widespread informality should be of great concern. The paper analyzes informality's main determinants, arguing that informality is not single-caused but results from the combination of poor public services, a burdensome regulatory regime, and weak monitoring and enforcement capacity by the state. This combination is especially explosive when the country suffers from low educational achievement and features demographic pressures and primary production structures. Using cross-country regression analysis, the paper evaluates the empirical relevance of each determinant of informality. It then applies the estimated relationships to most countries in Latin America and the Caribbean in order to assess the country-specific relevance of each proposed mechanism.
  • Publication
    Namibia: Country Brief
    (World Bank, 2009) World Bank
    Namibia is a large country in Southern Africa that borders the South Atlantic Ocean, between Angola to the north and South Africa to the south. With a surface area of 824,290 square kilometers, it is similar in size to Mozambique and about half the size of the U.S. state of Alaska. Namibia has a small population of approximately 2.1 million people. It is also one of the least densely populated countries in Sub-Saharan Africa, with an average density of approximately 2.5 people per square kilometer, compared to 34 people per square kilometer for the region as a whole. Namibia was the last colonized country in Sub-Saharan Africa to become independent. After nearly 70 years of South African rule, Namibia gained its independence on March 21, 1990. Until 1990, Namibia's official languages were German, Afrikaans, and English. Following independence, English became the official language, although it is the first language of only a very small percentage of Namibians. Oshiwambo dialects are the mother tongue of approximately half of the population. Namibia, a lower-middle-income country, has one of the highest levels of per capita income in Sub-Saharan Africa. Namibia is one of very few countries in Sub-Saharan Africa that maintains a social safety net for the elderly, the disabled, orphans and vulnerable children, and war veterans. It also has a social security act that provides for maternity leave, sick leave, and medical benefits. Namibia has one of the most productive fishing grounds in the world. The fishing industry is an important source of foreign exchange and a significant employer. The tourism industry in Namibia is similar in size to that in Botswana and is the country's third-largest foreign exchange earner. Namibia is one of the largest producers of gem quality diamonds in the world. It is estimated that 98 percent of its mined diamonds are gem quality. In 2006, almost half of total production was recovered from offshore sources. Namibia is the driest country in Sub-Saharan Africa, with deserts occupying much of the country. It has no perennial rivers or any other permanent water bodies. Due to the low and erratic rainfall and scarce ground and surface water, less than five percent of the country is arable, including through irrigation. Namibia was the first country in the world to incorporate environmental protection into its constitution. Nearly six percent of its land is nationally protected, including large portions of coastal areas within the Namib Desert.