World Bank Country Studies
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Country Studies are published with approval of the subject government to communicate the results of the Bank's work on the economic and related conditions of member countries to governments and to the development community. This series as been superseded by the World Bank Studies series.
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Tunisia's Global Integration : A Second Generation of Reforms to Boost Growth and Employment(Washington, DC : World Bank, 2009) World BankThis study on a world integration for Tunisia attempts to contribute to the achievement of the growth of the 11th development plan. It first takes stock of past integration policies, outlining policies implemented and assessing their impact on foreign direct investments (FDI), exports and employment. Then, it examines the current challenges of integration of Tunisia, which is both global and multisectoral pursuant to the actual creation of a free trade area with Europe for industrial products in January 2008. In the light of challenges expected, another generation of integration reform is identified to further improve the positioning of a competitive Tunisia and realize the potential growth in services. The report contains four chapters. Chapter one analyzes integration policies implemented since the early 70s and evaluates the impact thereof on the FDI, exports and employment. Chapter two examines the current challenges and major reforms necessary to correct the side-effects of past integration policies. Chapter three attempts to identify the reforms necessary to improve quality and lower prices of services. Finally, chapter four examines the prospects for export of professional services (accounting, auditing, legal services) and health by Tunisia, which showed a real capacity to compete in these areas in recent years.
Fostering Higher Growth and Employment in the Kingdom of Morocco(Washington, DC: World Bank, 2006) World BankThis book identifies the binding constraints to growth of Morocco. It applies an innovative procedure known as "growth diagnostic" and has a central finding. The Moroccan economy suffers from a too slow process of structural transformation for achieving higher growth, especially for its exports that face unfavorable external shocks arising from competitor countries in the main markets for Moroccan exports. This process of so-called "productive diversification" requires that Morocco enhance its competitiveness.
Economic Growth in the Republic of Yemen : Sources, Constraints, and Potentials(Washington, DC, 2002) World BankHigh and sustained rate of economic growth in Yemen is a necesary, though not sufficient, condition for reduction of the high incidence of poverty and for raising the living standards of Yemeni citizens. Evidence in this report suggests that the main obstacle to rapid and sustained economic growth is the weak governance that characterizes Yemen in addition to the weaknesses in domestic security, property rights, and rule of law systems. Weak governance in Yemen is characterized/manifested by widespread corruption, lack of transparency and accountability, inefficiency in the interaction of public officials and private business, ineffective or absent market promoting institutions such as those enforcing contracts (courts, tribunals, etc.), poor performance of the public sector in terms of delivering essential goods and implementing programs, associated lack of incentives and skills in the civil service, and weak enforceability of contracts and rulings. Along with ordering the governance situation, there are areas that should receive government priority in the short and medium term, including: 1) enhancing domestic security to boost economic activity in all economic sectors; 2) removing excessive and arbitrary regulations to strengthen basic infrastructure and other services and to attract private investment into these sectors; 3) legal and judicial reform; and 4) sustained implementation of civil service reforms.